Chapter 5-Health and Labour Market Disadvantage.docx

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University of Guelph
Family Relations and Human Development
FRHD 3090
Michelle Preyde

Chapter 5 – Health and Labour Market Disadvantage: Unemployment, Non-Employment, and Job Insecurity INTRODUCTION  Implications for population health of early 21st century labour market conditions.  Helps overcome major problems in changes in labour market conditions and health impact.  More jobs require high levels of education.  Jobs available to low educated are considered “mac-jobs”. o Areas in the fast food industry  Review evidence on relationship between unemployment and mental/physical health.  Health effects of flexible labour market policies. H EALTH EFFECTS OF U NEMPLOYMENT  Higher prevalence of ill health, excess mortality and the unemployed.  Unemployed more likely to describe their health as generally fair or poor.  Those ill are more likely to loss their jobs  Indirect effects, such as, lower level of education. o Less likely to be employed.  Essential to assess the possibility of consequence of selection. Selection  Cross sectional association  Health does not necessarily decline during unemployment.  Direct health selection = asserts that poorer health increases risk of unemployment.  Ill health can lead to loss of job and inability for re-employment.  Direct selection = longitudinal data on unemployment and mortality.  Question: o Could this be because the unemployed are already more likely to have life-threatening illness which precede their unemployment.  High risk of unemployment may be linked to personality characteristics  Indirect selection = characteristics such as personality traits are confounders.  “Causation” o Unemployment --------> Health  “Direct selection” o Health -------> Unemployment  “Indirect selection”  FACTOR X ------------> Poor Health  ------------> Unemployment Poverty  Lower living standards are not inevitable consequences of unemployment.  Health effects of unemployment directly link to financial problems.  Long-term unemployment with people who borrow money shows signs of high-risk depression.  Increasing financial pressures increase the growing inactivity and social isolation.  Present or anticipated financial strain strongest mediating factor in relation to unemployment and ill health in both men and women. Unemployment as a Stressful Life Event  Highly stressful life event.  Employment has non-financial benefits to individuals o Time structure to the day o Self esteem o Respect of others.  Benefits for work for mental health o Physical activity o Mental activity o Use of skill o Social status o Interpersonal contact.  Stress may affect physical/psychological health o Result in chronically increased levels of anxiety. Health-Related Behaviour  Context of long-term development of health behaviours.  Parasuicide o Attempted suicide o High rates with unemployed men  Incre
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