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Chapter 2

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

Kathy TruongChapter 2Food Categories and Composition note glossary terms are defined as in textbook first followed by semicolon for the back of the textbook definition 21 FOOD COMPOSITION TABLESFood compositionrefers to the substances or components found in a beverage or food raw foods composed of naturally occurring substances while processed foods contain specific functional additivestables of food compositions are printed by US Department of Agriculture USDA for information of nutrient and calorie kcal Food Categories and the Food Pyramidcommoditya useful consumer good a product of agriculture produced and delivered for shipment raw productprocessed commoditiesare valueadded commodities derived from agricultural commodities that offer convenience shelf life and sometimes added nutrients Ie cocoa red meats canned vegetablesfood categories used in food industry1 beverages 2 cereals 3 grains and baked products 4 fruits and vegetables 5 legumes and nuts 6 meat and poultry 7 seafood 8 eggs 9 mmilk and dairy products 10 chocolate and confectionary Serving Sizeserving sizeaccording to NLEAthe Nutrition Labeling and Education Act serving size is the amount of food customarily eaten at one time expressed in common household and metric measures grams g and milliliters mLFood Guide Pyramidfood labels specify serving size while Tables of Food Compositionemploys measures identified by weight with nutrient composition in grams Ie picklemeasure 1 each weight 65g Kathy Truong Food Guide Pyramid serving depends on food group 1 medium apple1 serving of fruit 22 BEVERAGESa beverage is a drinkable liquid consumed to 1 quench our thirstwater 2 stimulant effectcoffee 3 alcoholic contentbeer wine 4 health valuevegetable juices milk 5 enjoymentcarbonated soft drink The Degrees Brix of Beverages sucrose is a solid particle thus part of the total soluble solids for a beveragequality of beverage dependent on quantity of sugar o degrees Brix Brixused to measure a beverage sucrose concentration a measure of a beverage or liquids sugar concentration equal to the weight percent of sucrose in solution grams of sucrose per 100g of solution tool of measurement refractometry hydrometer device sucrose inversionwhen sucrose molecules in solution come apart to yield glucose and fructosefructose is sweeter than glucose or sucrosesucrose inversion promoted by low pH high acidity high storage temperature the enzyme invertase The Importance of the oBrixAcid Ratioa 50 percent sucroseinwater solution50oBrix on a weightweight basis weight of sucrose as soluble solid in a weight of waterfruit juice flavor is a function of sugar content and natural acid content 23 CEREALS GRAINS AND BAKED PRODUCTScereal grainscrops high in carbohydrate content such as starch glucose maltose fructose and fiber any grain used for food such as corn rice wheat barley millet rye sorghum and oats composed of 3 nutritious partsstructuresendosperm bran germendospermmajor layer in a grain kernel made up of starch storing parenchyma cells and having a content of B vitamins and protein branoutermost layer in a grain kernel high in fiber content cellulose and hemicelluloses and also containing protein B vitamins niacin thiamin and riboflavin and irongermlayer in a grain kernel that is rich in unsaturated fat specific B vitamins niacin thiamin and riboflavin and iron
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