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Chapter 4

Chapter 4- Food Chemistry 1, Functional Groups and Properties, Water, and Acids.docx

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Food Science
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

Chapter 4: Food Chemistry 1, Functional Groups and Properties, Water, and Acids 4.1 The Nature of Matter -its a review of Chem 4.2 Chemical Reactions in Food -review of Chem 4.3 Functional Groups -review of Chem 4.4 The Chemical and Functional Properties of Water -solvation and dispersing agent -food molecules can form H-bonds with water meaning that they can be dispersed or dissolved -this means that they are soluble -hydrophilic compounds (can easily H-bond) -Hydration is process by which water molecules surround and interact with solutes by acting as a solvent -can disperce amphiphilic agents (part hydroscopic, part hydrophobic) -micelles are formed -water activity and moisture -moisture: amount of water present in a food relative to all the solid constituents and non- water liquids -free water: lightly entrapped, so easily pressed from food matter -absorbed water: associates by layers via intermolecular H-bonds around hydrophilic food molecules -bound water: (water of hydration) tight chemically bound situations [ in crystalline structure] -aw: measure of the availability of water molecules to enter into microbial, enzymatic, or chemical reactions. -water as a component of emulsions -immiscible with fat -thus emulsifier is needed if need to have 1 continuous phase -water and heat treatment -important vehicle for heat transfer in foods during processing and preparation -water acts as a conductor of thermal energy to food molecules, process = heat transfer -water as an ingredient -can have repercussions as it can -act as solvent -change state with temperature changes -exhibit motion within a food system -in frozen foods, stabilizing movement of water is desirable for better quality -water as plasticizer -lowers glass transition temperature (T @ which change in physiochemical state and the mobility of the water and polymer molecule constituents of a food occurs) Chapter 4: Food Chemistry 1, Functional Groups and Properties, Water, and Acids -plasticizer acts as a food system softener, increasing food polymer molecular volume as well as mobility 4.5 Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Acids -typical food acid : carboxlic/organic acid. (COOH group) attached to molecule -some have low hygroscopity (low attraction to water) and will be adde
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