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Chapter 11

FOOD 2010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Clostridium Botulinum, Toxoplasma Gondii, Yersinia Enterocolitica

Food Science
Course Code
FOOD 2010
Massimo Marcone

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Chapter 11: Food Safety
11.1 What is Foorborne Illness
-defined as any illness resulting from ingestion of food
-3 types of hazards associated with foodborne illnesses
-biological hazards include bacteria, molds viruses and parasites
-chemical hazards include chemical substances that occur naturally in foods
-physical hazards include bone, metal, plastic, and any other foreign matter that can
cause damage to the consumer if ingested
11.2 Types of Biological Hazards in Food (see Foods 2700 week 1)
-bacterial causes
-can cause disease in humans according to the following classifications
-foodborne infection
-invade the intestinal tract
-colonize intestinal tract
-onset 12-2 days
-vomiting, cramps, fever if gram-negative
-ex: Salmonella
-foodborne intoxication
-caused by bacteria that produce toxins in the food during growth
-onset a couple of hours
-nausea, vomiting, cramps
-ex: Clostridium Botulinum
-foodborne intoxification
-ingesting of bacteria, that once inside the small intestine, begin to produce
-ex: E. Coli
-mycotoxins from molds
-able to produce highly toxic substances known as mycotoxins
-can cause vomiting, gangrene, bone marrow destruction, renal disorders,
liver cancer
-virus transmisison
-food can serve as a carrier for parasite from which disease can develop
-incubation period of several weeks
-transmission through fecal-oral route (not washing hands)
-ingestion of parasites
-harbored in the intestinal tract of animals
-onset is typically 1 week
-due to undercooking meat (cyst from feces may contaminate meat)
11.3 The Most Common Biological Hazards in Food
-bacteria is the main culprit
-in 1992 more than 26% of the cases were salmonella
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Chapter 11: Food Safety
-occur for one of 3 reasons
-not cooked properly in order to destroy the hazard
-product is not stored at the appropriate temperature to prevent growth
-product was contaminated with a bacterial agent and not treated further
before consumption
-E. coli O157:H7
-found in cattle
-1993, 477 cases in Washington state and California
-manifests with bloody diarrhea
-fatal to humans, does not affect the cows
-listeria monocytogenes
-1983, 41 people in Maritimes (canada) ill after eating cabbage fertilized with
animal manure
-caused multiple stillbirths
-yersinia enterocolitica
-found in rivers, steams and lakes due to contact with wild animals that
harbor the organism
-1976 in New York
-contaminated chocolate syrup in chocolate milk caused 220 kids to be ill
-cramps mistaken with appendicitis
-clostridium botulinum
-paralytic illness affects nervous system
-produces most powerful toxin known
-most cases from improperly home canned products
-vibrio cholerae
-causes cholera epidemic in Latin America
-contact with contaminated waters
-molds : ergotism and aleukia
-gangrenous ergotism : burning sensation of the feet and hands, develops
into a loss of circulation, often resulting in limb amputation
-convulsive ergotism : hallucinations and convulsive seizures are the main
-alimentary toxic aleukia : burning sensation in the mouth, progresses to
esophagus and stomach, which become inflamed, resulting in vomiting,
diarrhea, and cramps. Second stage is a cessation of symptoms for 2 months
where the person feels well. During this time bone marrow is being
destroyed and the patient develops leukemia, anemia, and secondary
bacterial infections. In the third stage, necrosis of the skin and muscles,
bronchial pneumonia, hemorrhages in the lungs, stomach, and intestines.
Leading to death in 80% of cases.
-viruses in foods
-hep A. 6th leading cause of foodborne illness in States
-associated with shellfish
-causes malaise, headache, anorexia, nausea, ab discomfort, jaundice
-4 weeks to develop
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