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FRHD 1010 (300)
Chapter 6

FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Parenting Styles, Mental Model, Sex Segregation


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Professor
Susan Chuang
Chapter
6

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Week 5
Chapter 6 Early Childhood: Psychosocial Development:
Emotional Development:
Children gradually become more capable in every aspect of their lives, including learning when and
how to express emotions
Emotional regulation the ability to control when and how emotions are expressed
Initiative Versus Guilt:
Initiative versus guilt Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new
skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
Protective Optimism:
Children’s beliefs about their worth are connected to parental confirmation, especially when parents
remind their children of their positive accomplishments
Self-concept a persons understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem,
physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits, such as gender
and size
Brain Maturation:
The new initiative that Erikson describes benefits from myelineation of the limbic system, growth of
the prefrontal cortex, and a longer attention span, all made possible by neurological maturation
Emotional and cognitive maturation develop together, each enabling the other to advance
Motivation:
Motivation (the impulse that propels someone to act) comes either from a person’s own desires or
from the social context
Intrinsic motivation a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person,
such as the need to feel smart or competent
Extrinsic motivation a drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have
one’s achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving
material possessions or another person’s esteem
Culture and Emotional Control:
Although there is considerable variation within, as well as among, cultures, national emphases on
regulating emotions seem to include the following:
o Fear (United States)
o Anger (Puerto Rico)
o Pride (China)
o Selfishness (Japan)
o Impatience (many Native American communities)
o Disobedience (Mexico)
o Erratic moods (the Netherlands)
Control strategies vary as well they sometimes ignore emotional outbursts, sometimes deflect them,
sometimes punish them, and so forth; shame is used when social reputation is a priority
Cultural differences are also apparent in emotional expression: children may be encouraged to laugh,
cry, and yell, or to hide their emotions
Finally, temperaments vary, which makes people within the same culture unlike one another
nonetheless, parents everywhere teach emotional regulation as their context expects
Unfortunately, children of parents who suffer from mental illness such as depression, bipolar disorder,
or schizophrenia are less able to regulate their emotions
Seeking Emotional Balance:
Psychopathology an illness or disorder of the mind
Parents guide children toward “an optimal balance” between emotional expression and emotional
control

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Week 5
Externalizing and Internalizing Problems:
Externalizing problems difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing
powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal
outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things
Internalizing problems difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one’s
emotional distress inward, by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed,
or worthless
Key Points:
Emotional regulation is the crucial psychosocial task in early childhood
Erikson thought young children are naturally motivated to take initiative, with joy at new tasks, yet
vulnerable to feeling guilty
Brain maturation and family guidance help children regulate their emotions, avoiding either extreme
externalizing or internalizing reactions in a culturally appropriate way
Young girls are less aggressive and more advanced in controlling their emotions, but virtually all sex
differences are in averages, not absolutes
Controlling emotions is influenced by both genetics and culture. Difficulties in controlling emotions can
lead to externalizing and internalizing problems
Gender Development:
Biology determines whether a child is male or female it is possible for sex hormones to be
unexpressed prenatally, in which case the child does not develop like the typical boy or girl
Most children are male or female in all three ways: chromosomes, genitals, and hormones that is
their nature, but obviously nurture affects their sexual development from birth until death
Sex and Gender:
Sex differences biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones,
and body shape
Gender differences differences in the roles and behaviours that are prescribed by a
culture for males and females
Gender identity the ability of children to make gender distinctions by accurately labelling
themselves as a boy or a girl
Gender stability the ability of children to understand that their gender is stable over time
and will not change
Gender constancy the ability of children to understand that gender cannot change,
regardless of their outside appearance, such as cutting their hair or
wearing a dress
Theories of Gender Development:
In recent years, sex and gender issues have become increasingly complex individuals may be
lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, mostly straight, or totally heterosexual
A dynamic systems approach reminds us that attitudes, roles, and even the biology of gender
differences and similarities change from one developmental period to the next; theories about how
and why this occurs change as well
Psychoanalytic Theory:
Phallic stage Freud’s third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of
concern and pleasure
Oedipus complex the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their fathers and win
their mothers’ exclusive love
Superego in psychoanalytic theory, the judgment part of the personality that internalizes
the moral standards of the parents
Electra complex the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mothers and win their
fathers’ exclusive love
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Week 5
Identification an attempt to defend ones self concept by taking on the behaviours and attitudes of
someone else
Other Theories of Sex-Role Development:
Although the psychoanalytic theory of early sex-role development is the most elaborate, there are
many other theories that explain the young child’s sex and gender awareness
Learning theory teaches that virtually all roles, values, and behaviours are learned; to behaviourists,
gender distinctions are the product of ongoing reinforcement and punishment, as well as social
learning
According to social learning theory, children model themselves after people they perceive to be
nurturing, powerful, and yet similar to themselves for young children, those people are usually their
parents
Furthermore, although national or provincial/territorial policies have an effect on gender roles, and
many fathers are involved caregivers, in every nation women do much more child care,
housecleaning, and meal preparation than men do
Cognitive theory offers an alternative explanation for the strong gender identify that becomes
apparent at about age 5
o Gender schema a child’s cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences,
which is based on his or her observations and experiences
Systems theory teaches that mothers and fathers play an important role in developing their children’s
understanding of gender
Humanism stresses the hierarchy of needs, beginning with survival, then safety, then love and
belonging; the final tworespect and self-actualizationare not priorities for people until the earlier
ones are satisfied
o Ideally, all babies have their basic needs met, and toddlers learn to feel safe, which puts
preschoolers at thelove and belonging stage” they seem to strive for admiration from the
group of peers they belong to even more than for the love of their parents; therefore, the girls
want to become of the girls and the boys to be one of the boys
Evolutionary theory holds that sexual attraction is crucial for humankind’s most basic urge, to
reproduce for this reason, males and females try to look attractive to the other sex, walking, talking,
and laughing in gendered ways
Key Points:
Sex differences are biological differences between males and females, while gender differences are
culturally prescribed roles and behaviours
Young children learn gender identify during the first year of their life; however, they do not have a full
understanding of gender until later
Theorists refer to attitudes, roles, and biology to explain sex-role development
Play:
Play is timeless and universal apparent in every part of the world for thousands of years
Many developmentalists believe that play is the most productive as well as the most enjoyable activity
that children undertake
Play is so universally valued that the United Nations has explicitly recognized it as a specific right for
children
Playmates and Friendship:
Young children play best with peers, that is, people of about the same age and social status
Through friendships, young children are able to learn and master age-graded tasks as friendships
provide a forum for learning and refining of socioemotional skills through these peer interactions,
children learn to cooperate and understand different perspectives; friendships also meet the needs for
intimacy
For young children, friendships are typically play-oriented dyads that socialize children into group life
Whether playing with peers or friends, there is a tendency for sex segregation early in life
o Sex homophily a preference to interact with one’s own sex
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