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FRHD 1010 (300)
Chapter 1-8

FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-8: Maria Montessori, Tantrum, Oedipus Complex

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Susan Chuang

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Chapter 1: The Beginning
Science of Human Development: seeks to understand how and why people and
circumstances change/ remain the same over time
depends on theories, data, analysis, critical thinking, sound methodology
5 Steps of a Scientific Method (way to answer questions that require empirical (experience/
observation) research and data-based conclusions):
being with curiosity
develop a hypothesis
test the hypothesis: gather empirical evidence
draw conclusions
report the results
Replication (6th step): repeating the procedures and methods with different participants
scientists study the procedures of other scientists
conclusions are revised, refined, confirmed
Nature: influence of genes that people inherit
Nurture: environmental influences, beginning with the health and diet of embryos mother to
family, school, community, society
aka. heredity-environment & maturation-learning
nature always affects nurture, and nurture affects nature
Life-Span Perspective: study of human development that takes into account all phases of life
new understanding that human development is multidirectional, multi contextual, multicultural,
multidisciplinary, and plastic
traditional idea: all development advances until 18, steadies, then declines
multiple changes, in every direction characterize life span (zig-zag when charted)
discontinuity can be found (occurs rapidly and dramatically)
continuity can be found (growth is gradual)
Critical Period: a time when something must happen
Sensitive Period: a time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen
ie. children talk between 1-3 and sometimes later (not critical), but grammer is impaired
takes place within many contexts: physical surroundings and family configurations
Ecological-Systems Approach (Urie Bronfenbrenner): the view that the person should
be considered in all the contexts/ interactions that constitue life
ecology deals with the relation of living things to their environment
macrosystem: cultural patterns, political philosophies, economic policies, social conditions
exosystem: religious values, mass media, educational system, community structures
mesosystem: interaction of systems
microsystem: immediate/ direct influences (family, school, peer group etc.)
chronosystem: time system (changing conditions, personal and societal over life span)
Cohort: a group defined by the members shared ages
travel life together, experience the same historical events/ cultural shifts
Socioeconomic Status (SES): aka. social class (middle class, working class)

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Culture: the system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviours, expectations, and
symbolic representations that persist overtime and prescribe social rules of conduct
more than just food, clothes and rituals—set ideas that people share
Social Construction: a concept constructed or made by society
affects how people think and behave
Difference-equals-deficit-error: the assumption that people unlike us are inferior
cultures that discourage dissent (hold/ express opinions) also foster harmony
cultures that encourage conflict also value independence
multicultural understanding requires recognition that some differences signify strengths,
not weaknesses
more sensitive to our biases and how we socially construct our knowledge
Chinese-American mothers define independence as self-reliance, the ability to do things
without the parents assistance (self expression)
Chinese-Canadian mothers define independence as both self-reliance and as an
expression of self
Acculturation (John Berry): process of cultural and psychological changes that
individuals face when coming in contact with new culture
the Canadian Multiculturalism Act: recognize and promote the understanding that
multiculturalism reflects the cultural and racial diversity of Canadian society and
acknowledges the freedom of all members of Canadian society to preserve, enhance and
share their cultural heritage
Guided Participation (Lev Vygotsky): is a universal process used by mentors to teach
cultural knowledge, skills habits
occurs through school instruction but happens through mutual involvement in
widespread cultural practices
Ethnic Group: people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often
share a language, culture, religion
ethnicity is a social construction affected by social context not a direct outcome of
biology (nurture not nature)
Race: group of people regarded as distinct from other groups based on appearance (skin
Epigenetic: refers to the environmental factors that surround the genes, affecting the
gene expression
genes alone do not determine development
genes interact with environmental conditions again and again
methylation: the first hours of life where biochemical elements silence certain genes
the multidisciplinary approach to the life span adds measure of caution to every scientist
no one is able to predict with certainty the future developmental path for anyone
two complementary aspects of development
human traits can be moulded but people maintain a certain durability of identity
people can and do change

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Dynamic System: human development is an ongoing and ever-changing interaction
between the body and mind between individual and environment
Differential Sensitivity: some people are more vulnerable than others to particular
Theories of Human Development
theory: a comprehensive and organized explanation of many phenomena
hypothesis: more limited and may be proven false
theories are generalities and hypotheses are specific
Developmental Theory: a systematic statement of principles and generalizations
provides framework for understanding how and why people change
helps us describe/ explain developmental changes by organizing and giving meaning to
facts and by guiding future research
Psychoanalytic Theory: holds the irrational, unconscious, drives and motives
often treated as stage theory because it sees children go through distinct/sequential levels
or stages
Learning Theory: overt behaviours that can be directly observed
behaviour is influenced by social environment and by how people are awarded/punished for
the way they act
Behaviourism (John B. Watson): behaviours can be trained and changed in response to
Conditioning (Ivan Pavlov): the process by which responses become linked to particular
ie. dogs drooled when they smelled food but also drooled when they heard the footsteps
of the person who brought the food
Classical Conditioning: a meaningful stimulis gradually comes to be connected by
neutral stimulus
Area of Disagreement
Psychoanalytic Theory
the unconscious
unconscious wishes/urges,
unknown to the person
unconscious not only
unknowable but may be
destructive fiction that keeps a
person from changing
observable behaviour
observable behaviour is a
symptom not the cause—tip of
the iceberg, with the bulk of the
problem submerged
looks only at observable
behaviour—what a person does
rather than what a person thinks/
importance of childhood
early childhood and infancy is
critical, even if person does not
remember what happened it
lingers throughout life
current conditioning is crucial,
early habits and patterns can be
unlearned/reversed if proper
reinforcements/punishments are
scientific status
most aspects of human
development are beyond reach
of scientific experiment
proud to be science, dependent
on verifiable data and controlled
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