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FRHD 1010 (300)
Chapter 1-4

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT CHAPTERS 1-4.docx


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 1010
Professor
Susan Chuang
Chapter
1-4

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FRHD 1010 - Chapter 1 Summary
Section 1 - Human Development Today and its Origins
1.1
Developed countries have been the focus of most research of human development,
but they hold only about 18% of the world’s population. The majority of the pop. (82%)
live in developing countries, and as the total pop. rises from 7 billion now to 9 billion in
2050, nearly all the increase will take place in developing countries. Most people who
live in developing countries are poor and live in rural areas, but these countries are
experiencing rapid economic development and massive migration to urban areas. Also
young people are receiving increasing levels of education as their countries become
wealthier and enter the global economy.
1.2
Socioeconomic status (SES) - includes educational level, income level, and
occupational status. It influences access to resources such as education and health care.
Gender shapes expectations and opportunities in most cultures through out life. Ethnicity
often includes a distinct cultural identity.
1.3
Natural selection results in species change because the young who are best
adapted to the environment will be most likely to survive and reproduce. Humans arose
from earlier hominids and developed distinctive characteristics such as large brains, long
infancy, tool use, and control of fire. Our species, Homo sapiens, first appeared around
200,000 years ago.
1.4
The upper Paleolithic period (40,000-10,000 years ago) is the first time human
cultures became distinct from one another in their art and tools. During the Neolithic
period (10,000-5,000 years ago), humans first domesticated plants and animals. The first
civilizations around 5,000 years ago marked the origin of writing, specialized work and a
centralized state.
1.5
Humans are one species, but since the birth of culture, human groups have
developed remarkably diverse ways of life. Our exceptionally large brain has allowed us
to create cultural practices that enable us to live in a wide range of environments.
Key terms -
Total fertility rate (TFR) -
Developed countries - World’s most economically developed and affluent countries.
Developing countries - countries that have lower levels of income than developed
countries
collectivistic - cultural values such as obedience or group harmony

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caste system - in Hindu culture of India, an inherited social hierarchy, determined by
birth
Socio economic status (SES) - persons social class, including educational level, and
occupational status
Ontogenic - characteristic pattern of individual development in a species
Phylogenic - pertaining to the development of a species
Evolutionary psychology - branch of psychology that examines how patterns of human
functioning and behaviour have resulted in adaptations to evolutionary conditions
Section 2 - Theories of Human Development
1.6
Stage conceptions of the life span were developed thousands of years ago in the
hindu, greek and jerwish cultures. There were 4 stages in the hindu conception, 10 in the
greek and 14 in the jewish. All three conceptions concerned only men and ignored
women’s development.
1.7
All three ancient conceptions are ideals in that they assume that life will go well
and will continue in old age. All view youth as the time of perpetration and immaturity,
adulthood as a time of great responsibilities and peak achievements, and the final stages
of life as a preparation of death.
1.8
Freud’s psychosexual theory of development emphasized the sexual drive as the
primary motivator of human behavior. He proposed five stages of psychosexual
development, but believed that the early stages were crucial and the that most of later
development was determined by age 6.
1.9
Erikson proposed a psychologic theory of development that emphasized social
and cultural influences and proposed that important changes take place through out the
life span.
Age Period
Psychosocial stage
Main development challenge
Infancy
Trust vs. Mistrust
Establish bond with trusted caregiver
Toddlerhood
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Develop a healthy sense of self as distinct from others
Early Childhood
Initiative vs. guilt

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Initiate activities in a purposeful way
Middle Childhood
Industry vs. inferiority
Begin to learn knowledge and skills of culture
Adolescence
Identity vs, identity confusion
Develop a secure and coherent identity
Early Adulthood
Intimacy vs. isolation
Establish a committed, long-term love relationship
Middle Adulthood
Generativity vs. stagnation
Care for other and contribute to well-bieng of the young
Late Adulthood
Ego integrity vs. despair
Evaluate lifetime, accept as it is
1.10
Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory emphasizes the different systems that interact in a
person’s development.
1. Microsystems - term for the immediate environment, the setting where people
experience their daily activities. Microsystems in most cultures include siblings, parents
and extended family.
2. Mesosystem - the network of interconnections between the various microsystems.
3. Exosystem - refers to societal institutions that have indirect but potentially important
influences.
4. Macrosystem - the broad system of cultural beliefs and values, and the economic and
governmental systems that are built on beliefs and values.
5. Chronosystem - changes that occur in developmental circumstances over time, both
regarding individual development and historical changes.
1.11
In this book the life span is divided into 10 stages, from prenatal development to late
adulthood.
1.12
Scientific method
1. identifying a research question
2. forming a hypothesis
3. choosing a research method
4. collecting data
5. drawing conclusions that lead to new questions and hypothesis.
1.13
Research on human development is required to follow ethical guidelines, which
are laid out by professional organizations and enforced by IRBS. The Main guidelines
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