FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Prefrontal Cortex, Harm Reduction, Limbic System

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Katy Lemaire FRHD1010
Feb 9th, 16.
CHAPTER 5: Early Childhood, Body and Mind
Body Changes: fat decreases, children slim down, centre of gravity moves to belly,
increases in weight and height (18-22kg) at least 100cm tall, adult body like proportions
Improved motor skills gross and fine, depending on mastering and practicing activities
that culture values
Nutritional Challenges: important for brain development, need high levels of fat in diets,
malnutrition of 1/3 of children deaths. The cultural practice of encouraging children to eat
more has been destructive and caused many children to be overweight, habits, not
genetics tend to be more of a problem.
Nutritional Deficiencies: lacking in vitamins such as zinc and iron, in developing nations,
the lack of micronutrients as part of fortified foods tends to have best results
Allergies: challenge to ensuring nutrition, common in young children
Obsessions: children insist on certain foods prepared and served in a particular way,
rigidity known as just right is the tendency of children to have something in just one
way, encompasses more than just food as well.
Avoidable injuries: unintentional injuries, highest in Aboriginal communities,
recommendations to reduce are: focus on surveillance, improve education, strengthen
advocacy, reduce barriers, evaluate initiatives, provide resources. Injury control or
harm reduction is practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling and preventing
dangerous activities, reflect belief that accidents are not random.
Harm Reduction: primary prevention are actions that change overall background
conditions to prevent some unwanted event or circumstance. Secondary prevention are
actions that avert in a high risk situation and tertiary prevention are actions such as
immediate and effective treatment that are taken after an adverse event.
Brain Development:
The maturing cortex- human brains develop into early adulthood, distinguish humans
from apes, between 2-6 years of age neurological increases are notable in cortex regions
(planning, thinking, social skills and language) occur. The prefrontal cortex is largest in
humans, executive in humans for planning and reflection.
Speed of thought: result of myelination which is the process by which axons become
coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from
neurons to neurons.
Preservation is the tendency to preserve, in or stick to, one thought or action for a long
time, opposite manifestations of the prefrontal cortex
Connecting Hemispheres: the corpus callosum is a long thick band of nerve fibres that
connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between
them, 2 sides of the body are not identical, left side controls the right side, this refers to
lateralization which is referring to specialization in certain functions by each side of the
brain, one side dominant for each activity.
Emotions and the Brain: brain region for emotions called the limbic system which is the
major brain region crucial to the development of emotional expression and regulation, 3
major components are amygdala which is a tiny brain structure that registers emotions,
fear and anxiety. The hippocampus a brain structure that is a central processor of
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