FRHD 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Social Cognition, Nuclear Family, Single Parent

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Katy Lemaire FRHD1010 February 26th, 2016.
Chapter 8: Psychosocial Development of middle childhood
The Nature of the Child
-children can tell time and appropriate times for certain activities, try to conform to peers,
striving for independence from parents.
-Industry and Inferiority: The 4th of Erikson’s 8 psychosocial crises, during which
children master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or
inferior, competent or incompetent. Children are able to do more tasks and look for ways
to master a new skill. Supportive parents help to master skills.
-Freud + Latency: the term for middle childhood during which children’s emotional
drives and psychosexual needs are quiet. Freud thought that sexual conflicts from earlier
stages are only temporarily submerged and come about again during puberty.
-Self Concept: how they perceive themselves (intelligence, personality etx) gradually
becomes more logical and incorporates influences. Comparing with others is the idea that
they are more concerned with how peers view them than parents. Social comparison is
the tendency to assess one’s abilities, achievements, social status and other attributes by
measuring them against those of other people. Self consciousness rises between ages 6-
11, materialism increases and appearances begin to matter. Culture and self esteem,
culturally dependant as each culture values it differently.
-Resilience and Stress: resilience is the ability to adapt well to significant adversity and
to overcome serious stress. Resilience is dynamic, not stable, it is a positive adaption to
stress and the adversity overcome must be significant. Ungar describes resilience as a
group of characteristics allowing an individual from a poor upbringing to grow up
successfully, to be competent under stress and to recover from traumatic experiences.
Cumulative stress has been proven to be more devastating than isolated major stress.
Cognitive Coping measures reduce the impact of repeated stress. Some children
experience parentification in which the take on emotional roles for siblings or physical
such as caring for them. Escaping family stress can be done with social support through
schools and faith.
Families and Children
-parents are instrumental in creating environments that allow their children to thrive
-Shared and Non-Shared Environments: children are more affected by non shared
environments (combines genes and environment) Parent often choose non-shared
influences for their children such as their school and activities they will join.
-Family Structure and Family Function: children need 5 things from their parents in
middle childhood: physical necessities, learning, self respect, peer relations and harmony
and stability. Family structure is the legal and genetic relationships among relatives
living in the same home. Family function is the way a family works to meet the needs of
its members. Family structure is changing more and more in modern society, a nuclear
family is a family that consists of a mother, father and their biological children under 18,
they generally function the best. 2 parent families tie in the concept of same sex marriage
as well as step parents, this allows for a larger network. Single parent family is a family
with one parent and their children under 18 and tends to not function as well. Extended
family is a family of 3+ generations living in one household.
-Family Challenges: Poverty, income correlates with structure or a lack thereof, this also
affects the function of a family overall as a child may not have as many social
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