FRHD 3150 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Equivalence Class, Stimulus Control, Vending Machine

37 views7 pages
Published on 19 Apr 2013
School
University of Guelph
Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course
FRHD 3150
Chapter 8
Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization4/18/2013 6:55:00 PM
Any situation where behavior occurs can be analyzed in terms of 3 sets of events:
1. Antecedent stimuli: The stimuli that exist prior to the occurrence of the
behavior
2. The behavior itself
3. The consequences of the behavior
ABC (antecedents, behavior, and consequences) assessment: Identifying the
antecedents and consequences of a behavior
Stimuli: People, objects and events currently present in ones immediate
surroundings that affect ones sense receptors and that can affect behavior
Stimulus Control: the degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular
stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response
Good or Effective Stimulus Control: strong correlation between the occurrence
of a stimulus and a response (when stimulus occurs, response is likely to follow)
Eg. Putting money into vending machine, you see the name of the bar
beside a particular button, you press that button- exerted good stimulus
control over your button pressing behavior
Types of Controlling Stimuli: S D s and S (triangle) s
Discriminative Stimulus (stimulus of reinforcement) (SD): stimulus in the
presence where a response will be reinforced (cue that a particular response will
pay off)
Stimulus for Extinction (S triangle): stimulus in the presence where a response
will not be reinforced (cue that a particular response will not pay off)
Eg. When a child swears, the stimulus of the other kids is a discriminative
stimulus for the response of swearing because their laughter and
attention reinforced that response
o When child is around grandparents, the grandparents is a stimulus
for extinction for the response of swearing because it was not
reinforced in their presence
-Stimulus can be discriminative for one response and extinction for another
Eg. A one way sign, the sign is an S D (discriminative stimulus) in the
direction of the arrow, and an extinction ( S triangle) for driving in a
direction against that signified by the arrow
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Stimulus Generalization: procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a
stimulus and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of
another stimulus (opposite of stimulus discrimination)
-Several reasons for the occurrence of stimulus generalization:
1. Unlearned Stimulus Generalization Due to Considerable Physical Similarity
- People/animals are likely to perform a behavior in a new situation if that situation
is similar to the one in which they learned the behavior
Eg. Infant learns to say “doggie” to large, hairy, four-legged creature and
a friendly bark. Later, the infant sees a different dog and says “doggie”.
2. Learned Stimulus Generalization Involving Minimal Physical Similarity
Common-element stimulus class: set of stimuli, all of which have one or more
physical characteristics in common (stimulus class)
-Use the term common-element stimulus class to distinguish it from a stimulus-
equivalent class
Eg. Cars have four wheels, windows and a steering wheel. When a child
learns to say car when seeing a particular one, the child is likely to show
unlearned stimulus generalization and be able to identify other cars
Eg. Teaching the concept of wetness, you would reinforce the response
wet to many different wet objects and extinguish that response to dry
objects
-When a person shows appropriate response to all members of a common-element
stimulus class and does not emit that response to stimuli that do not belong to that
class, we say that the person generalizes to all members within a common-element
stimulus class (distinguishing between red and blue objects)
3. Learned Stimulus Generalization Due to Stimulus Equivalence Classes
Stimulus equivalence class: set of completely dissimilar stimuli that a person has
learned to group or match together
The members of this stimulus equivalence class are functionally
equivalent in the sense that they all control the same behavior
Each of these stimulus equivalence classes are also referred to as concept
-Note that what may be a common-element stimulus class for some people is a
stimulus equivalence class for others
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Any situation where behavior occurs can be analyzed in terms of 3 sets of events: antecedent stimuli: the stimuli that exist prior to the occurrence of the behavior, the behavior itself, the consequences of the behavior. Abc (antecedents, behavior, and consequences) assessment: identifying the antecedents and consequences of a behavior. Stimuli: people, objects and events currently present in ones immediate surroundings that affect ones sense receptors and that can affect behavior. Stimulus control: the degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response. Good or effective stimulus control: strong correlation between the occurrence of a stimulus and a response (when stimulus occurs, response is likely to follow) Putting money into vending machine, you see the name of the bar beside a particular button, you press that button- exerted good stimulus control over your button pressing behavior. Types of controlling stimuli: s d s and s (triangle) s.

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

YearlyMost Popular
75% OFF
$9.98/m
Monthly
$39.98/m
Single doc
$39.98

or

You will be charged $119.76 upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.