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HIST 2200 (12)
Chapter

Universities and New Learning

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Department
History
Course
HIST 2200
Professor
Susannah Ferreira
Semester
Fall

Description
Universities and the New Learning Reason vs. Faith (12th Century)  Bernard of Clairvaux • The Cistercians, major figure of 12thcentury, on the side of faith, nemesis was Peter Abelard • Epitomized struggle, science and faith • Was a monk, strict observance of the rule, humanity needed a simple faith before God • Thought the soul was important in knowing God, belief was important also to know God • Believed words were a trap/seduce people to lead them away from God’s path, condemn rhetoric and Cluniac art, anything that might distract from worshiping God • Founded Knights Templar, leading figure in the 2 ndCrusade Banned Cluniac art • The art on books • Jewels to show the elegance on the outside as it does on the inside • Gargoyles and statues • Cult of the Virgin Mary • Faith for simple for humanity, the Virgin was supposedly able to intercede for people with God who was unreachable  Peter Abelard(1079-1142) • Freelance thinker, public intellectual • Most renowned intellect of the time • Rigorous thinker, used logic and dialectics to reconcile inconsistencies • Secular cleric, was a teacher • Lived in the world, of the world, brilliant thinker • Was a terrible student, considered himself smarter than the teachers • Abelard and Heloise • Tombs in France • Great love stories of all time • Was teaching in Paris, could seduce any woman he wanted • Heloise was highly educated and very smart • Goes to her uncle to stay and live with him • Affair begins with Heloise, he tutored her, she gets pregnant • They marry secretly, Fulbert thinks they are still unmarried, he is sure this is a trick and hires thugs to castrate Abelard • She is sent to a convent under the Cluniacs, letters exchanged • Wanted to know God, Bernard wanted to feel God • “by doubting we come to enquiry, from enquiry to truth” • Influenced by sin and penance which caused him to understand life better  Scholastic Method • Developed by Abelard, wrote a book called Sic et non(Yes and No) • The book questioned everything and even cast doubts on the Christian faith • Students from across Europe travelled to learn under him • Method became the dominant method in universities until the Enlightenment • He asked tough questions and didn’t provide answers, it was the student’s job to come up with the answers and refine their thinking processes • This was completely distinct from emotion and faith • It was in his terms reason in service of faith • Thought it would defend faith because it would provide rational answers to theological problems • Abelard and Bernard were enemies, Bernard constantly attacked Abelard for taking students away from the faith, thought that he was distracting people from God and using the lectures to corrupt their souls • Bernard refused to meet and publicly debate Abelard • Used lies tricks and subterfuge to attack, called him a heretic • Persuaded the Pope to burn Abelard’s book • Abelard’s ideas still managed to flourish and spread • 100 year period from Abelard to Aquinas when anything was open to debate with no possible repercussions Universities  Cathedral Schools a. New schools attached to cathedrals, learning moving from the countryside to the urban environment b. Factors were: • Monastic life was conservative, supposed to remain co
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