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HIST 2200 Chapter Notes -Dialectic, W. M. Keck Observatory, Cistercians

Course Code
HIST 2200
Susannah Ferreira

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Universities and the New Learning
Reason vs. Faith (12th Century)
Bernard of Clairvaux
The Cistercians, major figure of 12th century, on the side of faith, nemesis was Peter Abelard
Epitomized struggle, science and faith
Was a monk, strict observance of the rule, humanity needed a simple faith before God
Thought the soul was important in knowing God, belief was important also to know God
Believed words were a trap/seduce people to lead them away from God’s path, condemn
rhetoric and Cluniac art, anything that might distract from worshiping God
Founded Knights Templar, leading figure in the 2nd Crusade
Banned Cluniac art
• The art on books
Jewels to show the elegance on the outside as it does on the inside
• Gargoyles and statues
Cult of the Virgin Mary
Faith for simple for humanity, the Virgin was supposedly able to intercede for people
with God who was unreachable
Peter Abelard(1079-1142)
Freelance thinker, public intellectual
Most renowned intellect of the time
Rigorous thinker, used logic and dialectics to reconcile inconsistencies
Secular cleric, was a teacher
Lived in the world, of the world, brilliant thinker
Was a terrible student, considered himself smarter than the teachers
Abelard and Heloise
Tombs in France
Great love stories of all time
Was teaching in Paris, could seduce any woman he wanted
Heloise was highly educated and very smart
Goes to her uncle to stay and live with him
Affair begins with Heloise, he tutored her, she gets pregnant
They marry secretly, Fulbert thinks they are still unmarried, he is sure this
is a trick and hires thugs to castrate Abelard
She is sent to a convent under the Cluniacs, letters exchanged
Wanted to know God, Bernard wanted to feel God
“by doubting we come to enquiry, from enquiry to truth”
Influenced by sin and penance which caused him to understand life better
Scholastic Method
Developed by Abelard, wrote a book called Sic et non(Yes and No)
The book questioned everything and even cast doubts on the Christian faith
Students from across Europe travelled to learn under him
Method became the dominant method in universities until the Enlightenment
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