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Chapter 1

NUTR 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Peanut Butter, Human Body, Broccoli


Department
Nutrition
Course Code
NUTR 1010
Professor
Lise Smedmor
Chapter
1

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Classes of Nutrients
Chemically there are 6 classes of nutrients, which can be grouped in different ways
1. Carbohydrates, 2. Lipids (fats), 3. Proteins, 4. Water, 5. Vitamins, 6. Minerals
Nutrient dense food = is the measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to its energy
content—contain substantial amounts of nutrients per kcalorie: broccoli good sourece of calcium,
vitamin C, vitamin A and folate and only contributes about 20 kcalories per 125ml (1/2 cup)
Most of the weight of a human body = water, protein, fat.
Cellular level = lipids and proteins make up the membranes that surround cells
Metabolism = all of the reactions that occur in the body – metabolic processes must be regulated to
maintain a stable environment inside the body which means – homeostasis
* The enzymes that catalyze the chemical reasons of metabolism are made up of proteins – these
combine with vitamins & minerals to speed up or slow down the reactions as needed to maintain
homeostasis
Provides Energy Macronutrients Micronutrients
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Alcohol can also provide
energy BUT IS NOT
considered a nutrient –
not needed to support life
Energy measured in
Kilocalories (Kcalories or
Kcals) or Kilojoules kJ
Calorie is technically
1/1000 of kilocalorie
BUT when spelled with:
Calories C = kilocalories
calories c = kcalorie
content of food or diet
Only carbs, lipids and
protein provide energy
and thus energy-
yielding
Water and other energy
yielding nutrients form
the major portion of most
foods and are required in
LARGE amounts by the
body.
- Measured in
KILOGRAMS (kg)
Or GRAMS (g)
Vitamins and Minerals –
needed in small amounts
-Measured in
MILLIGRAMS (1mg =
1/1000 g) or
Micrograms.
CLP are organic
molecules, referred to as
organic nutrients
WATER = inorganic
molecules, referred to as
inorganic nutrients
VITAMINS = organic
molecules, referred to as
organic nutrients
MINERALS = inorganic
molecules, referred to as
inorganic nutrients

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Human body: 6% Mineral, carbohydrates, and other substances, 16% Fat,16% Protein, 62% Water
Malnutrition: Consuming too little or too much of one or more nutrients or energy
Carbohydrates Lipids (Fats, oils) Protein Water
Carbs – readily available
source of energy –
contain 4 kcalories/gram
Include sugars like table
sugar, fruit, and milk,
and starches as those in
veggies and grains
- not a single substance
* Sugars are the simplest
form of carbs
* Starches are complex
carbs made of many
sugars linked together
* Most fibers are carbs &
cannot be digested –very
little energy but
important for
gastrointestinal health
Fiber = veg, fruits,
legumes & whole grains
Provide 9 kclaories/gram
– not single substance
- they are a concentrated
source of energy in food
+ a lightweight storage
form of energy in body
1) Triglycerides – type of
lipid that is most
abundant in foods & in
body – fat on outside of
steak, butter & oil that’s
added to food during
cooking, layer of fat
under person’s skin =
comprised almost
entirely of triglycerides –
made up of fatty acids
Good fatty acids: mono
& polyUNsat
Bad fatty acids: saturated
fatty acids
2) Cholesterol: high
levels in blood can
increase heart disease
risk
- needed for growth &
maintenance of body
structures & regulation of
body processes
-can be used to provide
energy –4
kcalories/gram- meat,
fish, poultry, milk, grains,
veg & legumes
- not a single substance –
there are thousands of
different proteins in body
& diet
- All of these are made up
of units called amino
acids (different
combinations are linked
to form different
proteins)
- Some amino acids can
be made by the body &
others are essential in the
diet.
- Proteins in animal
products better match for
amino acids BUT – both
provide all amino acids
we need
Nutrient in a class
by itself – NOT
energy-yielding
nutrient
- MACRO that
does NOT provide
energy
- Makes up about
60% of human
body by weight +
is required in
kilogram amounts
in daily diet
-Acts as a
lubricant,
transports fluids +
regulator of body
temp
- can be obtained
thru drink or food
(many foods
contain water)
Raw beer = 60%
water
Fruits & Veg = 70-
98%
MICRONUTRIENTS
Vitamins and minerals – need small amounts
- both found in most foods, fresh foods, processed
foods are fortified with micronutrients
- Food processing & preparation can cause vitamin loss
– some destroyed by exposure to light, heat, oxygen
- Minerals more stable but can still be lost along with
vitamins in water used in cooking & process
- Frozen, canned, process’foods can still be good
sources of vitamins & minerals
-vitamins are organic molecules that DO NOT provide
energy BUT needed to regulate body processes: bone
growth, vision, blood clotting, oxygen transport +
tissue growth & development
- 13 substances have been identified as vitamins
Minerals: inorganic molecules – do NOT provide
energy - have regulatory roles & important structurally
– needed for bone strength, the transport of oxygen,
transmission of nerve impulses, numerous other
functions. - Required in small amounts –role in health
is not fully understood
- Macro + Micro – provide energy, structure, regulation
– needed for growth, maintenance & repair,
reproduction
- All nutrients are needed together for health
Haha: When the energy in carbs, lipids, and proteins
consumed in the diet is not needed immediately, it can
be stored as fat. These stores provide energy when
dietary sources are unavailable. Over the long term, if
more energy is consumed than needed, body stores get
larger and body weight increases. If less energy is
consumed than needed, the body will burn its stores to
meet its energy needs, and body weight will decrease.
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