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Chapter 14

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University of Guelph
NUTR 2050
Simone Holligan

Chapter 14AdolescentsAdolescence is defined as the period of life between 11 and 21 yrsPhysical emotional and cognitive maturity is accomplished during adolescenceThe dramatic physical growth and development experienced by adolescents significantly increases their needs for energy protein vitamins and mineralsStruggle for independence that characterizes adolescent psychosocial development often leads to the development of healthcompromising eating behaviors such as excessive dieting meal skipping use of unconventional nutritional and nonnutritional supplements and the adoption of fad dietsNormal Physical Growth and DevelopmentEarly adolescence encompasses the occurrence of puberty the physical transformation of a child into a young adultBiological changes that occur during puberty include sexual maturation increases in height and weight accumulation of skeletal mass and changes in body compositionoThe sequence of these events during puberty is consistent among adolescents but the age of onset duration and tempo of these events vary a great deal between individualsSexual maturation or biological age should be used to assess biological growth and development and the individual nutritional needs of adolescents rather than chronological ageSexual Maturation Rating SMR figure 141 on pg 358 aka Tanner Stages is a scale of secondary sexual characteristics physiological changes that signal puberty including enlargement of the testes penis and breasts and the development of pubic and facial hair that allows health professionals to assess the degree of pubertal maturation among adolescents regardless of chronological ageoSMR is based on breast development and the appearance of pubic hair among females and on testicular and penile development and the appearance of pubic hair among malesoSMR stage 1 corresponds with prepubertal growth and development while stages 2 through 5 denote the occurrence of pubertyoAt SMR stage 5 sexual maturation has concludedoSexual maturation correlates highly with linear growth changes in weight and body composition and hormonal changesMenses is the process of menstruationAmong females the first signs of puberty are the development of breast buds and sparse fine pubic hair occurring on average between 8 to 13 years of age SMR stage 2Menarche the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle occurs 2 to 4 years after the initial development of breast buds and pubic hair most commonly during SMR stage 4Average age of menarche is 124 years but menarche can occur as early as 9 or 10 yrs late or as late as 17 yrs oldMenarche may be delayed in highly competitive athletes or in girls who severely restrict their caloric intake to limit body fatEnlargement of the testes one of the 2 male reproductive glands located in the scrotum and change in scrotal coloring are most often the first signs of puberty among males occurring between the ages of 105 and 145 years with 116 yrs being the avg ageDevelopment of pubic hair common during SMR stage 2males show a great deal of variation in the chronological age at which sexual maturation takes placeOn average peak velocity of linear growth among males occurs during SMR stage 4The peak velocity of linear growth occurs at 144 years of age on average At the peak of the growth spurt adolescent males will increase their height by 28 to 48 inches 712cm a yearoLinear growth will continue throughout adolescence at a progressively slower rate ceasing at about 21 yrs of ageChanges in Weight Body Composition and Skeletal MassAs much as 50 of ideal adult body weight is gained during adolescence Among females peak weight gain follows the linear growth spurt by 3 to 6 monthsoWeight gain slows around the time of menarche but will continue into late adolescenceoPeak accumulation of muscle mass occurs around or just after the onset of mensesoBody composition changes dramatically among females during pubertyAmong males peak weight gain coincides with the timing of peak linear growth and peak muscle mass accumulationoBody fat decreases in males during adolescenceA variety of factors contribute to accretion of bone mass including genetics hormonal changes weightbearing exercise cigarette smoking consumption of alcohol and dietary intake of calcium vitamin D protein phosphorus boron and iron Adequate intake of calcium phosphorus and protein is critical to support bone growth since bone is comprised largely of these nutrientsEarly adolescence 1114 yrsBegin to experience dramatic biological changes related to pubertyDevelopment of body image and increased awareness of sexuality peer influence is strongStudy found that situational factors such as where they ate and who they ate with were important factors in the food choices female adolescents madeFemales who mature early have been found to have more eating problems and poorer body image than their laterdeveloping
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