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Chapter 1-6

POLS 2100 Chapter 1-6: F13_POLS-2100_TextbookNotes

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Political Science
POLS 2100
Justin Taillon

POLS 2100 Textbook Notes 20:26 Comparative politics: the study and comparison of domestic politics across countries Politics: the struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group Power: the ability to influence other or impose one’s will on them Major thinkers in comparative politics: 1. Aristotle (384-322BCE)  Separated the study of politics from that of philosophy  used comparative method to study Greek city states 2. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)  Cited as first modern political scientist because of his emphasis on statecraft and empirical knowledge  Analyzed different political systems 3. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)  Developed the “social contract”  Freedom for safety  Life without political authority 4. John Locke (1632-1704) www.uofgexamnetwork.com  Argued that private property is essential to individual freedom and prosperity 5. Charles Louise de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)  Studied government systems  Advocated the separation of powers within government 6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)  Argued that citizens’ rights are inalienable and can’t be taken away by the state  Influenced the development of civil rights 7. Karl Marx (1818-1883)  Inequality in Das Kapital  Predicted the eventual collapse of capitalism and democracy 8. Max Weber (1864-1920)  Wrote on topics such as bureaucracy, forms of authority, and the impact of culture on economic and political development Traditional approach: emphasis on describing political systems and their various institutions Behavioral approach: the shift from a descriptive study of politics to one that emphasizes casualty, explanation, and prediction Chapter 2: States State: the organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory Sovereignty: the ability to carry out actions and policies within a territory independent of external actors and internal rivals Regime: the fundamental rules and norms of politics Government: the leadership that runs the state, limited by the regime Consensus: individuals band together to protect themselves and create common rules: leadership chosen from among people, security through cooperation  democratic rule Coercion: individuals are brought together by a ruler, who imposes authority and monopolizes power. Security through domination  Authoritarian rule Types of legitimacy: 1. traditional legitimacy: built by habit and custom over time, stressing history; strongly institutionalized (ex. Monarch) 2. Charismatic legitimacy: built on the force of ideas and presence of the leader; weakly institutionalized (ex. Revolutionary hero) 3. Rational-legal legitimacy: built on rules and procedures and the offices that create and enforce those rules; strongly institutionalized (ex. Elected executive) Federalism: powers such as taxation, lawmaking, and security are devolved to regional bodies and to local legislatures that control specific territories within the country Asymmetric federalism: power is divided unevenly between regional bodies Unitary states: political power is concentrated at the national level, and local authority is limited *PAGE 49 CHART www.uofgexamnetwork.com Chapter 3: Nations and Society Ethnicity: we emphasize a person’s relation to other members of society Ethnic identity: a set of institutions that bind people together through a common culture. Often based on customs, language, religion, or other factors Nation: a group that desires self government through an independent state National identity: an institution that binds people together through common political aspirations Nationalism: a pride in one’s people and the belief that they have their own sovereign political destiny that is separate from others Citizenship: an individual’s relation to the state; the individual swears allegiance to the state, and the state in turn provides certain benefits or rights Nation-state: a sovereign state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent Ethnic conflict: conflict between ethnic groups that struggle to acheieve certain political or economic goals at each other’s expenses National conflict: seeks to gain sovereignty, clashing with one another over the quest to form an independent state Radicals: believe in dramatic, often revolutionary change of the existing political, social or economic order Ideologies: 1. Liberalism: favors a limited state role in society and economic activity; emphasizes a high degree of personal freedom over social equality (conservative) 2. Communism: emphasizes limited personal freedom and a strong state in order to achieve social equality; property is wholly owned by the state and market forces are eliminated; state takes on task of production and other economic decisions (radical) 3. Social democracy: supports private property and markets but believes that state has a strong role to play in regulating the economy and providing benefits to the public; seeks to balance freedom and equality (liberal) 4. fascism: stresses a low degree of both personal freedom and equality in order to achieve a powerful state (reactionary) 5 anarchism: stresses the elimination of the state and private property as a way to achieve both freedom and equality for all; believes that a high degree of person freedom and social equality is possible (radical) www.uofgexamnetwork.com Chapter 4: Political Economy Political economy: the study of how politics and economics are related and how their relationship shapes the balance between freedom and equality Markets: the interactions between the forces of supply and demand, and they allocate resources through the process of those interactions  sellers seek to create products that will be in demand  buyers seek to buy the best or most goods at the lowest price  markets are the medium through which buyers and sellers exchange goods  markets emerge spontaneously and aren’t easily controlled by the state Property: the ownership of the goods and services exchanged through markets  land, buildings, businesses or personal items Public goods: goods provided or secured by the state, that are available for society and indivisible, meaning that no one private person or organization can own them Social expenditures: the state’s provision of public benefits, such as education, health care and transportation Central bank: an institution that controls how much money is flowing through the economy, as well as how much it costs to borrow money in that economy  controls the amount of money in an economy  controls the cost of borrowing money  lowers interest rates to stimulate the economy  raises interest rates to check inflation Inflation: an increase in the overall prices in the economy (also deflation) Hyperinflation: inflation that is higher than 50% a month for more than 2 months in a row Tariffs: taxes on imported goods Quotas: limit the quantity of a good coming into the country Arguments over the regulation of trade:  Why regulate trade? - To generate state revenue - To foster local industry - To protect local jobs - To keep wealth in the country www.uofgexamnetwork.com Chapter 4: Political Economy  Why not? - To promote competition - To keep the costs of goods low - To stimulate domestic innovation in areas of comparative advantage Political economic system: the actual relationship between political and economic institutions in a particular country, as well as the policies and outcomes they create Laissez faire: let do Capitalism: a system of private property and free markets How do social democracies seek to achieve greater equality? - Through taxes, which make high levels of social expenditure possible while redistributing wealth from rich to poor - Through trade, which is promoted but balanced with preserving domestic industry and jobs - Through government regulation and even ownership of important sectors of the economy Contributors to the theories of political economy:  Liberalism: The wealth of nations, considered one of the first texts on modern economics. Articulated the idea that economic development requires limited government interference – Adam Smith  Mercantilism: Nation system of political economy rejected free-trade theories of liberalism, arguing that states must play a strong role in protecting and developing the national economy against foreign competitors – Friedrich List  Communism: Das Kapital, asserted that human history is driven by economic relations and inequality and that revolution will eventually replace capitalism with a system of total equality among people – Karl Marx  Social democracy: Evolutionary Socialism, Rejected Marx’s belief in the inevitability of revolution, arguing that economic equality can be achieved through democratic participation – Edward Bernstein How do mercantilist states seek to achieve economic power? www.uofgexamnetwork.com Chapter 4: Political Economy - By directing the economy toward certain industries and away from others through the use of subsidies and taxation - Through partial or full state ownership of industries that are considered critical - With the strong use of tariffs, nontariff barriers, and other regulations - By limiting social expenditures and thereby keeping taxation to a minimum - With low interest rates set by the central bank to encourage borrowing and investment GDP: measures total production within a country, regardless of who owns the products PPP: takes cost of living and buying power into account GINI: assess inequality HDI: assess health, education and wealth of the population Liberalization: cutting taxes, reducing regulation, privatizing state owned businesses and public goods and expanding property rights www.uofgexamnetwork.com Chapter 6: Nondemocratic Regimes Nondemocratic Regime: a political regime is controlled by a small group of individuals who exercise power over the state without being constitutionally responsible to the public  a small group of individuals exercises power over the state  government isn’t constitutionally responsible to the public  public has little or no role in selecting leaders  individual freedom is restricted  nondemocratic regimes may be institutionalized and legitimate Totalitarianism: a form of nondemocratic rule with a highly centralized state whose regime has a well defined ideology and seeks to transform and fuse the institutions of state, society and the economy  seeks to control and transform all aspects of the state, society and economy  use violence as a tool for remaking institutions  have a strong ideological goal  have arisen relatively rarely Populism: a specific ideology and in fact draws much of its power from an anti institution approach Nondemocratic means of control: - Coercion public obedience is enforced through violence and surveillance - Co-optation: members of the public are brought into a beneficial relationship with the state and government - Personality cult: the public is encouraged to obey the leader based on his/her extraordinary qualities and compelling ideas Corporatism: emerged as a method by which nondemocratic regimes attempted to solidify their control over the public by creating a limited number of organizations to represent the interests of the public and restricting those not set up or approved by the state Clientelism: where the state co-opts members of the public by providing specific benefits to a person in return for public support ex. Voting Kleptocracy: those in power seek only to drain the state of assets and resources Patrimonialism: an arrangement where the ruler depends on a collection of supporters within the state who gain direct benefits in return for enforcing the ruler’s will www.uofgexamnetwork.com Chapter 6: Nondemocratic Regimes Bureaucratic Authoritarianism: a regime in which the state bureaucracy and the military share a belief that a technocratic leadership, focused on rational, objective and technical expertise, can solve the problems of the country – unlike emotional or irrational ideology based parties Types of nondemocratic rule: 1. Personal and monarchial rule: rule by a single leader with no clear regime or rules constraining that leadership 2. Military rule: rule by one or more military officials, often brought to power through a coup detat 3. One party rule: rule by one political party, with other groups banned or excluded from power 4. Theocracy: rule by god: holy texts serve as foundation for regime and politics 5. illiberal regimes: rule by an elected leadership, through procedures of questionable democratic legitimacy www.uofgexamnetwork.com Political Violence Political Violence: politically motivated violence outside of state control  ex. Revolutions, civil wars, riots and strikes 3 Explanations for political violence 1. Institutional: Existing institutions may encourage violence or constrain human action, creating a violent backlash ex. Presidentialism 2. Ideational: Ideas may justify or promote the use of violence ex. Some forms of religious fundamentalism; nationalism 3. Individual: Psychological or strategic factors may lead people to carry out violence ex. Humiliation 2 Forms of political violence 1. Revolution: an uprising of the masses, who take to the streets, seize control of the state, and depose the old regime  a public seizure of the state in order to overturn the existing gover
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