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Chapter 2

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University of Guelph
Political Science
POLS 3250
J Killingsworth

Public Policy: Challenges and Prospects Chapter 2: Modern Governance- The Challenges for Policy Analysis There are 3 powerful undercurrents beneath the waves of political turmoil and policy reversal evident in Canada and throughout the industrialized world. They are globalization, shifts in political culture, and new ideas about government and public management. Each is multi-faceted and connected with the others. Globalization Economic Globalization o Dynamic process that involves inexorable integration of markets, nation-state and technologies to an unprecedented degree o Its driving idea is free market capitalism- the more countries integrate with the world economy and allow global economic forces to penetrate domestic economies, the more they will prosper o Defining technologies include computerization, digitization, satellites, the internet, mobile communication, and global transportation systems o The policy trick for most states is to come to terms with globalization but also balance it against identity and community o Contemporary globalization is characterized by globality, or the sense that the entire planet is a single social place, where people pay collective attention to global events, where globality depends on modern means of transportation o Appadurai sugests we look at globalization in terms of 5 "scapes":  Enthnoscapes: the movements of people as tourists, migrants, refugees, exiles  Technoscapes: internet and transportation technologies  Financescapes: unpredictable financial flows  Mediascapes: global media in all its forms (tv, movies, audio etc)  Ideoscapes: global flows of ideas and ideologies that are generated locally but spread globally  Gobality is the sense that these scapes, despite their heterogeneity, merge seamlessly together and simultaneously in an ordinary way o The development of a complex international trading system is also important  Results in an international economic system ex. The World Trade Organization, the World Bank etc.  Goods and services can flow more freely across borders o Transnational corporations are another economic dimension of globalization creating a global market o Consequences of economic globalization  Change the terrain of modern policy making and analysis  The development of international trading regimes means that governments have fewer policy instruments at their disposal to protect domestic markets  Governments often have to deal with disputes between domestic law and international agreements  Some people fear negative results such an inequality, less job opportunities and harm to the environment may result as well Cultural Globalization o All around the world people are rapidly becoming the same o There is a massive penetration of American culture o Consumers around the world are beginning to develop similar cultural expectations about what they ought to be able to buy and what they should buy o There is a desired degree of social cohesion and a foundation for stable community identity and cultural production that is threatened by globalization International Standards o Many human rights conventions have emerged o When policy making, governments have to take note of international standards o The ways in which policy problems are defined are changing, as well as the range of instruments and strategies to deal with them The Politics of Difference The political culture across the industrialized democracies has also changed significantly. o Increased liberal individualistic values o People are more prepared to articulate
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