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PSYC 1000 (740)
Chapter 13

PSYC 1000 Chapter 13: 13,1

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Benjamin Giguere
Semester
Fall

Description
13.1, 13.2, 13.3 Chamelon effect: describes how people mimic others non-consciously, automatically copying others behaviours even without realizing it . Social norms: the usually unwritten guidelines for how to behave in social contexts. Social loafing: which occurs when an individual puts less effort into working on a task with others What encourages social loafting: (1)Low efficacy beliefs: this occurs if tasks are too difficult or complex; so people don’t know where to start (2)Believing that one’s contributions are not important to the group (3)Not caring about the group’s outcome (4)Feeling like others are not trying very hard Social facilitation: occurs when ones performance is affected by the presence of others Groupthink: refers to this sitting diversity that occurs when individuals are not able to express their true perspectives, instead having to focus on agreeing with others and maintaining harmony in the group Solomon Asch: groupthink can occur without a strong leader because of conformity pressures. In this study, partipants were seated at a table with other people who were secretly working with the experiment. This experiment showed normative influence: a social pressure to adopt a group’s perspective in order to be accepted, rather than rejected by a group or informational influence: which occurs when people internalize the values and beliefs of the group, coming to believe the same things and feel the same ways themselves People tend to be less likely to conform when  Only one other people is in the vicinity  There are only one male members  There are only strangers in the group  There are extremely clear and simple tasks  There is one other nonconformist in the room  Responses are made anonymously People tend to be more likely to conform when:  There is a large group in the vicinity  There is a high proportion of female group members  There are friends, famult, or acquaintances in the vicinity  The task is unclear or ambiguous  Other conform first  Responses are made publicly Consciouslt making a choice that one knows to be wrong should activate parts of the prefrontal cortex that involve executive function abilities, such as choosing between alternatives. It Asch studies: even a single individual has a great deal of power in group settings, because by being willing to publicly disagree with the group, conformity pressures are significantly reduced for others Bystander effect: describes that counterinutive finifn that the presence of other people actually reduced the likelihood of a helping behaviour. Diffusion of responsibility: which occurs when the responsibility for taking action is spread across more than one person, thus making no single individual personally responsible Pluralistic ignorance: this occurs when there is a disjunction between the private belief of individuals and the public behaviour they display to others In contrast to social norms, which are general rules that apply to members of a group, social roles are more specific se of expectations for how someone in a specific position should behave According to variations of the Milgram experiment: one of the most effective ways to get people to disobey an authority figure is to make sure they have some companions who will do it too them as well 13.2 Explicit processes: which correspond roughly to conscious thought, are deliberative, effortful, relatively slowe, and generally under out intentional control. The explicit level od consciousness is our subjective inner awareness, our “mind” as we know it. Implicit processes: comprise our “unconscious” thought; they are intuitive, automatic, affortless, very fast and operate largely outside of out intentional control. The implicit level of consciousness is the larger set of patterns that govern how our mind generally functions, all the lower-level processes that comprise the vast bulk of what out brain actually do Dual process model: models of behaviour that account for both implicit and explicit processes Person perception: the process by which individuals categorize and form judgments about other people Person perception begings the instant we encounter another person, guided by out past experiences with people and inte
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