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Chapter 6

PSYC 1000 Chapter 6: 6.1

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

6.1 Module Learning: a process by which behaviour or knowledge changes as a result od experience Pavlov’s Dog: Classical Conditioning of Salivation  Ivan Pavlov  Studied digestion  Noticed that before meat was presented the dogs would start to salivate  Classical conditioning: learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus elicts a response that was orgiginally caused by another stimulus  The neutral stimulus was the sound of the tone, which was paired with meat power that could itself elict salvation  Unconditioned stimulus: is a stimulus that elicts a reflexive response without learning  Unconditioned response: is a reflexive, unlearned reaction to unconditioned stimulus  Conditioned stimulus: a once neutral stimulus that later elicts a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus  A conditioned response: is the learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus  To establish that conditioning has taken place, the tone (CS) must elict salivation in the absence of food  What distinguishes the UR from the CR is the stimulus that elicts them. Salivation is a UR if it occurs in response to US (food). A CS can have this effect only if it becomes associated with a US Classical Conditioning and the Brain In most conditioning experiments, the US reliably triggers the UR; this relationship is thought to be represented by strong neural connections between groups of neurons in the temporal lobbes of the brain When a weak connection between neurons is stimulated at the same time as a strong connection, the weak connection becomes strengthened Quick Quiz 1. The learned response that occurs to the conditioned stimulus is known as the conditioned response 2. A once neural stimulus that elicts a conditioned response because it has a history of being paired with an unconditioned stimulus is known as a conditioned stimulus 3. A dental drill can be an unpleasant stimulus, especially for people who may have experienced pain while one was used on their teeth Process of Classical Conditioning Conditioned responses may be very strong and reliable, which if the CS and the US have a long history of being paired together Condtioned responding may diminish over time, or may occur with new stimuli with which the response has never been paired Acquisition, Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery Learning involves a change in behaviour due to a new experience, which can include acquiring a new response Acquisition: is the initial phase of learning in which a response is established In classical conditioning, acquisition is the phase in which a neutral stimulus is paired with the US In Pavlov’s experiment, the conditioned salivary response was acquired with numerous food pairings A critical part of acquisition is the predicitiablity with which the CS and US occur together Even if a conditioned response is fully required, there is no guarantee it will persist forever Extinction: is the loss or weakening of a conditioned response when a conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus no longer occur together Spontaneous recovery: the reocurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response, typically after some time has passed since extinction Pavlov noticed that salivation would reappear when the gods were later turned to the experimental testing room where acquisition and extinction trials had been conducted Extinction and spontaneous recovery are evidence that classically conditioned responses can change once they are acquired Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination Stimulus generalization: Is a process in which a response that originally occurs to a specific stimulus also occurs to different, though similar, stimulus Generalization may be explained by the Hebb rule. When we perceive a stimulus, it activates not only our brains representation of that item, but also out representation of related items Genralizations allow for flexibility in learned behaviours, although some behaviours can be too flexible. Salivating to any sound would be a waste of time because not every sound predicts food Pavlov’s dogs showed discrimination: which occurs when an organism learns to respond to one original but not to a new stimuli that may be similar to the original stimulus Process of Classical Conditioning Quick Quiz 6.1b What is the reoccurrence of a previously extinguished conditioned response, typically after some time has passed since extinction: spontaneous recovery In classical conditioning, the process during which a neural stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus is known as acquisition Your dog barks every time a strnager’scar pulls into the driveway, but not when you come home. Reacting to your car differently is a sign of discrimination Applications of Classical Condtioning Conditioned Emotional Responses: Conditioned emotional responses: consists of emotional and physiological responses that develop to a specific object or situation Little Albert: presented a baby with a white rat where he showed no fear. Then while he had the rat in his hand they struck a loud bell which made albert scared. He then had a conditioned response to the rat and developed a fear of the rat There are brain regions responsible for such conditioned emotional responses. If an organism learns to fear a particular location, such as learning that a certain cage is associated with an electrical shock, then context-related activity in the hippocampus will interact with fear-related activity in the amygdala to produce contextual fear conditioning Preparedness: The biological predisposition to rapidly learn a response to a particular class of stimuli Conditioned Taste Aversions: When the CS and US are linked, the taste of food or fluid soon produced aversion repsonses, even in the absence of physical illness Condtioned taste aversion: this acquired dislike or sigust of a food or drink because it was paried with illness. They may develop through illness, flue, medical prodecures A conditioned taste aversion develops to something we have ingested that has an unfamiliar flavour. Latent inhibition: which occurs when frequent experience with a stimulus before it is paired with a US makes it less likely that conditioning will occur after a single episode of illnesses The unfamiliarity of foods that trigger conditioned taste aversions makes it easier for these conditioned response to occur. Quick Quiz Co
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