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Chapter 9

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University of Guelph
PSYC 1000
Anne Bergen

Chapter 9 The Single-Sample t Test and the Paired-Samples t Test  There are three types of t tests o Single-sample t test  Used when we are comparing a sample mean to a population but do not know the populations standard deviation o Paired-sample t test  Used when we are comparing two samples and every participant is in both samples o Independent-samples t test  When we are comparing two samples and every participant is in only one sample The t Distributions  We use a t distribution instead of a z distribution when sampling requires us to estimate the population standard deviation from the sample standard deviation or when we compare two samples to another Estimating Population Standard Deviation from the Sample  The formula for standard deviation when estimating from a sample o Look at page 205 Calculating Standard Error for the t Statistic  The formula for standard error when were estimating from a sample o Sm= s/(square root) N Using Standard Error to Calculate the t Statistic  The t statistic indicates the distance of a sample mean from a population mean in terms of the standard error o There is a formula page 206  Close to z statistic formula The Single-Sample t Test  A single sample t test is a hypothesis test in which we compare data from one sample to a population for which we know the mean but not the standard deviation The t Table and Degrees of Freedom  Degrees of freedom is the number of scores that are free to vary when estimating a population parameter from a sample o The formula is df= N-1  As sample size increases the t distributions more and more closely approximate the z distribution The Six Steps of the Singe-Sample t Test  Step 1 o Identify the populations, distributions and assumptions  Step 2 o State the null and research hypothesis  Step 3 o Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution  Step 4 o Determine the critical val
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