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PSYC 1000
Benjamin Giguere

STUDYING AND BUILDING MEMORIES Studying Memory  Memory: the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information  Evidence that learning persists takes 3 forms:  Recall: a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in- the-blank test  Recognition: a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test  Relearning: a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again Measures of Retention  Our recognition memory is impressively quick and vast  Relearning helps Tests of recognition and of time spent relearning demonstrate that we remember more than we can recall Memory Models  Information-processing models are analogies that compare human memory to a computer’s operations  Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system-for example, by extracting meaning  Storage: the retention of encoded information over time  Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage  Memories have limits  Our dual-track brain processes many thing simultaneously by means of parallel processing  Connectionism views memories as products of interconnected neural networks  Every time you learn something new your brain’s neural connections change, forming and strengthening pathways that allow you to interact with and learn from your constantly changing environment  Richard Atkinson & Richard Shiffrin three-stage model: 1. Sensory memory: the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system 2. Short-term memory: activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as 7 digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgottenwe encode it through rehearsal 3. Long-term memory: the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system, includes knowledge, skills, and experiences Working Memory  Challenge short-term memory as a small, brief storage space for recent thoughts and experiences stage is not just temporary shelf, it’s an active desktop where your brain processes information, making sense of new input and linking it with long-term memories  Working memory: a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory Dual-Track Memory: Effortful Versus Automatic Processing  Atkinson and Shiffrin’s model focused on how we process our explicit memories(memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare)  But our mind operates on 2 tracksit processes explicit memories through conscious, effortful processing(encoding that requires attention and conscious effort) STUDYING AND BUILDING MEMORIES  Automatic processing(unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information, such a word meanings) produces implicit memories(retention independent of conscious recollection)  Two-track memory reinforces parallel processing: mental feats such as vision, thinking, and memory, may seem to be single abilities but are not. Rather we split information into different components for separate and simultaneous processing What two new concepts update the classic Atkinson-Shiffrin 3 stage information-processing model? 1. We form some memories (implicit memories) through automatic processing, without our awareness. The Atkinson-Shiffrin model focused only on conscious, explicit memories. 2. The newer concept of a working memory emphasizes the active processing that we now know takes place in Atkinson-Shiffrin’s short term memory stage What are two basic functions of w
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