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PSYC 1000 (740)
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40- Psychodynamic Theories.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1000
Professor
Benjamin Giguere
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES  Psychodynamic theories of personality view human behaviour as a dynamic interaction between the conscious and unconscious mind, including associated motives and conflicts Freud’s Psychoanalytic Perspective: Exploring the Unconscious  Free association: in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing  Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorder by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions  Unconscious: a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware  Some thoughts we store temporarily in a preconscious area from which we can retrieve them into conscious awareness  Id  unconscious energy  Superego  internalized ideas  Ego  mostly conscious; makes peace between the id and superego  We repress, or forcibly block unacceptable passions from our consciousness because they would be too unsettling to acknowledge  Without our awareness, these troublesome feelings and ideas powerfully influence us, sometimes gaining expression in disguised forms  Freud viewed jokes as expressions of repressed sexual and aggressive tendencies, and dreams as the royal road to the unconscious  The remembered content of dreams (manifest content) censored expression of the dreamers unconscious wishes (latent content) Personality Structure  Human personality- including emotions and strivings- arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint- between our aggressive, pleasure-seeking biological urges and our internalized social controls over these urges  Personality arises from our efforts to resolve this conflict- to express these impulses in ways that bring satisfaction without also bringing guilt or punishment  Id: a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification  Ego: the largely conscious executive part of personality that according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain  Superego: the part of personality that according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations Personality Development  Psychosexual stages: the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones PSYCHODYNAMIC THEORIES Stage Focus Oral (0-18 months) Pleasure centers on the mouth- sucking, biting, chewing Anal (18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic (3-6 years) Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings Latency (6 to puberty) A phase of dormant sexual feelings Genital (puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests  During the phallic stage boys seek genital stimulation, and they develop both unconscious sexual desires for their mothers and jealousy and hatred for their father, whom they consider a rival (Oedipus complex)  Girls experience a parallel Electra complex  Children eventually cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and identifying with rival parent  Identification process children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos  gender identity  Fixation: a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved  An orally fixated adult could exhibit passive dependence (like a nursing infant) or denial of dependence (by acting tough) or might continue to seek gratification by smoking or excessive eating Defense Mechanisms  Ego protects itself with defense mechanisms- tactics that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality  All defence mechanisms function indire
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