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PSYC1000 - Module 33

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PSYC 1000
Harvey Marmurek

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Course: PSYC*1000 (DE) Professor: Harvey Marmurek Schedule: Summer, 2012 Textbook: Psychology – Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615 Module 33: Sexual Motivation and the Need to Belong What physiological factors affect human sexual behaviour, and what disorders disrupt the sexual response cycle? • William Masters and Virginia Johnson – monitored/filmed more than 10,000 sexual “cycles” – four stages o Excitement phase (genital areas become engorged with blood, woman’s vagina expands and secrete lubricant and breasts and nipples may enlarge o Plateau phase – excitement peak as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase; penis fully engoged and some fluid may appear at tip; vaginal secretion continues to increase, the clitoris retracts and orgasm feels imminent o Orgasm – increased breathing, pulse blood pressure; woman’s orgasm not only reinforces intercourse, it also increases retention of deposited sperm o Resolution – gradually returning to unaroused stated; male enters refractory period (incapable of having another orgasm – few minutes to a day or more) • Sexual Disorders o Masters and Johnson also understand and treat inability to complete sexual response cycle  Lack of sexual arousal or functioning  Lack of sexual energy and arousability  Men • Erectile dysfunction (inability to have or maintain an erection) • Premature ejaculation  Women • Pain or orgasmic dysfunction • Most experience sexual distress and relate it to their emotional relationship with their partner during sex How do hormones, and external and internal stimuli, influence human sexual motivation? • Sex hormones have two effects : They direct the physical development of male and female sex characteristics, and they activate sexual behaviour. o Hormones more loosely influence sexual behaviour o Days around ovulation – intercourse was 24% more frequent; women wear more sexually attractive clothing, slightly higher voice pitch; men higher testosterone levels if smelling shirt by ovulating woman than non-ovulating woman o Women with reduced testosterone levels can receive replacement patch and restore sexual activity, arousal and desire o Men – normal fluctuation – man to man hour to hour and little effect on sexual drive • Psychology of Sex o Hunger and sex similarities – depend on internal physiological factors; reflect interplay of excitatory and inhibitory responses; influenced by external and imagined stimuli, and cultural expectations o External Stimuli ~ men aroused when see, hear, or read erotic material (and so do women) – though brains react differently o Imagined Stimuli ~ the brain is our most significant sex organ; 95% of men and women have sexual fantasies Levels of Analysis for Sexual Motivation: Biological Influences – sexual maturity; sex hormones, especially testosterone Psychological Influences – exposure to stimulating conditions; sexual fantasies Social-Cultural Influences – family and society values; religious and personal values; cultural expectations; media -- all tie in to Sexual Motivations What factors affect our sexual expression? Our genes and sex hormones (testosterone and the estrogens) influence our sexual behaviour. Psychological stimuli and cultural attitudes and expectations also affect the ways we express our sexuality. What factors influence teen pregnancy and risk of sexually transmitted infections? • American women born before 1900, 3% had premarital sex by 18; almost 50% now. o Teen Pregnancy – what contributes to teen pregnancy  Minimal communication about birth control  Guilt related to sexual activity  Alcohol use  Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity o Sexually Transmitted Infections  2/3 happen to those under 25 – teenage girls (not mature biolbically and lower levels of protective antibodies – especially vulnerable)  14 to 19 year old females – 39.5% had STIs  Predictors of sexual restraint: • High intelligence • Religious engagement • Father presence • Participation in service learning programs Which three of the following five factors contribute to unplanned teen pregnancies: alcohol use, ignorance, mass media models The use of condoms during sex does reduce the risk of getting HIV and doesn’t fully protect against skin-to-skin STIs. What has research taught us about sexual orientation? • We express the direction of our sexual interest in our sexual orientation • Sexual Orientation Statistics o 3% of men and 1 or 2% of women are exclusively homosexual o Fewer than 1% calim bisexual o 13% of women and 5% of men have experienced some same-sex contact in their lives o Images – men mostly look at woman; women look equally at man and woman • Origins of Sexual Orientation o With each pregnancy with a male fetus, the maternal antibodies may become stronger and may prevent the fetus’ brain from developing in a male-typical pattern o The Brain and Sexual Orientation – Simon LeVay studied sections of the hypothalamus taken from deceased heterosexual and homosexual people; blind study; one cell cluster was reliably larger in heterosexual man than in women and homosexual men  Everything psychological is simultaneously biological… but when do such brain differenced begin – conception, womb, childhood, adolescence, related to experience, related to genes or prenatal hormones o Genes and Sexual Orientation  Maternal genetics may be at wor
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