PSYC 2310 Chapter 2: Chapter 2 Notes

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Chapter 2 studying behaviour scientifically y the presence of bystanders produces a diffusion of responsibility, a psychological state in which each person feels decreased personal responsibility for intervening. Hypothesis: a tentative explanation of prediction about some phenomenon y. Theory: a set of formal statements that explains how and why certain events are related to one another. Hindsight: problem with relying solely on hindsight reasoning is that related past events can be explained in many creative, reasonable, and sometimes contradictory way. Is supported y y y y law of parsimony of two theories can explain and predict the same phenomena equally well, the simpler theory is the preferred one. Variable: any characteristic of an organism or situation that can differ. Operational definition: defining a concept or variable in terms of the specific procedures used to produce or measure it. Self-report measures: ask people to report on their own knowledge, beliefs, feelings, behaviours and experiences.

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