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Chapter 3

PSYC 2330 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Eyeblink Conditioning, Chemotherapy, Impulsivity


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2330
Professor
Francesco Leri
Chapter
3

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Ch. 3 Classical Conditioning Foundations
- Habituation and sensitization involve learning about just one stimulus, however evets
do not occur in isolation; rather much of our experience consists of predictable and
organized sequences of stimuli
- Cause and effect relationships in the world ensure that certain things occur om
combination with others (Ex. run does not run unless ignition is on)
- Social institutions and customs also ensure that events occur in a predictable order (Ex.
people are better dressed at church)
- Classical conditioning enables human and nonhuman animals to take advantage of the
orderly sequence of events in their world to take appropriate action in anticipation of
what is about to happen
The Early Years of Classical Conditioning
- Twitmyer repeatedly tested the knee-jerk reflex by sounding a bell .5 seconds before
hitting the patellar tendon just below the knee cap
After several trials, bell alone elicited the knee-jerk reflex
Did ot eplore roader & therefore did’t reeie uh attention
- Palo’s studies as a etesio of his researh o digestio as they discovered that
dogs secreted stomach juices in response to the sight of food or the person who feeds
them (remedy for various stomach ailments by using a artificial fistulae to collect
digestive juices)
Psychic Secretions stomach secretions elicited by food related stimuli
- Receive more attention b/c of its relation to association learning and function of the
nervous system
The Disoeries of Vul’fso ad Sarskii
- Vul’fso used natural occurring materials to study the vary responses to substances such
as dry/wet food, sour water and sand (after mere sight made them salivate)
- Snarski used artificial substances, giving his dogs sour water that was artificially coloured
black (after several trials, dogs salivated to plain black water or to the sight of a bottle
containing black liquid)
Orosensory Stimuli distinctive texture and taste sensations in the mouth
Object Learning the association of one feature of an object with another
Ex. after sand had been placed in the mouth several times, the sight of sand (its visual
features) also came to elicit salvation
- Stimuli to be associated have to be manipulated independently of one another in
associated learning (difficult when two stimuli are properties of the same object)
The Classical Conditioning Paradigm
- One stimuli is a tone or light that does not elicit salvation while the other stimuli is food
or the taste of a sour solution placed in the mouth eliciting vigorous salvation even the
first time presented
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) light/tone (eliciting salvation depended on (conditional on) pairing
it several times with the presentation of food)
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Unconditioned Stimulus (US) food (eliciting salvation did not depend on any prior training)
Conditioned Response (CR) salvation that eventually came to be elicited by the tone or light
Unconditioned Response (UR) salvation that was always elicited by the food or sour taste
- Conditional = dependent on but was later changed to conditioned
Experimental Situations
Fear Conditioning
- Watson and Rayner conditioned a fear response to the presence of a docile white lab rat
in a nine-month old infant named Albert
- Albert was not afraid of a lot but reacted with alarm when he heard the loud noise of a
steel bar being hit by a hammer behind his head (US)
- Each conditioning trial the rat was presented (CS) and then striking of the steel bar
At first reached out to the rat when presented to him (UR), but after two trials he
became reluctant to touch the rat (after more showed strong fear responses such as
crying, falling over, leaning as far from the rat as possible (CR))
Conditioned fear generalized to other furry things (rabbit, fur coat, dog) but not his toy
blocks
- Used to collect research on fear and anxiety
- Aversive US is a brief electric shock delivered through a metal grid floor (can be
regulated with precision and be adjusted); CS may be discrete like a light or tone
- Rats show sign of freezing as a defence mechanism (so do other animals) that developed
because animals that are motionless are not easily seen by predators
- Freezing = immobility of body (except breathing) and absence of movement of whiskers
associated with sniffing (automated systems to detect movement are not available)
Conditioned Suppression Procedures suppression of ongoing behaviour
Adapted for experiments with humans (behavioural baseline is provided by an ongoing
activity such as playing a video game)
Licked-Suppression Procedure rats are slightly water deprived and therefore lick readily when
placed in an experimental chamber, if a fear CS (tone) is presented, their licking behaviour is
supressed & they take longer to make a specified number of licks
Eyeblink Conditioning
- If each air puff is preceded by a brief tone, the blink response will become conditioned
and the person will blink in response to the tone
- Poerful tool for stud of proles i deelopet, agig, Alzheier’s disease, fetal
alcohol syndrome, and other disorders
- Ex. infant sat o parents lap facing platform with bright objects maintaining their
attention; CS was 1,000 cps tone presented for 750ms & US was gently puff of air
delivered to right eye through a plastic tube
For one group, CS ended with a puff of air with trials being 12 seconds apart vs the
second group, receiving equal distributions of CS and US but being 4-8secs apart being
the control (never together)
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Results rate of eyeblinking did not differ statistically during first experimental session
but the paired group responded to the CS at a significantly higher rate from the
beginning of the second session
- Classical conditioning requires a pair of CS and US (no response to the CS in the unpaired
group)
- Learning was not observable at first (infants in first group did not respond much in the
first session but did in the second)
Sign Tracking and Goal Tracking
Sign Tracking (Autoshaping) movement towards and possibly contact with a stimulus that
signals the availability of a positive reinforce, such as food
Food can be predicted on the basis of cues that originate from the food source but are
detectable at a distance (Ex. sight/noise of a mouse are cues indicating the possibility of
a meal)
- Present a discrete, localized visual stimulus just before each delivery of a small amount
of food
Pigeons placed in an experimental chamber w/ small circular key that could be
illuminated & that they could peck; birds given access to food for short period (4secs) &
key light was illuminated immediately for 8secs before each food delivery
Instead of using key light to tell them when to go to the food dish, the pigeons started
pecking the key itself although not required to gain access to food (presenting light at
random times or unpaired did not result in pecking)
For conditioning to occur, key light had to be paired w/ food
- Similar with sexual conditioning with male quails (birds approached the CS wooden
block rather than the female 8ft away even though they were released 30secs apart)
- Individual differences in sign tracking are correlated with individual differences in
impulsivity and vulnerability to drug use
- Individual differences in sign tracking where rats are placed in small experimental
chamber that has a food cup in the middle of one of the walls, there is a slot on either
side of the food cup through which a response lever can be inserted (serves as the CS)
and a pellet of food delivered to the food cup serving as the US
Insert one of the levers for 8secs and then withdraw and a pellet of food is delivered
(response lever paired with food do not produce the same result in all rats; 1/3 become
conditioned to track the CS; 1/3 ignore the level but approach & poke heads into the
food cup; remaining show sign & goal tracking)
Goal Tracking tracks the goal object, which is food
- Sign trackers = psychomotor sensitization to cocaine, greater activation of the
dopamine reward circuit & elevated plasma corticosterone levels (& high locomotor
responsivity)
- Goal tracking = low locomotor responsivity
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