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Lana Trick (87)

Sound Chapter

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PSYC 2390
Lana Trick

Sound StimulusPhysical definition of sound pressure changes in the air or other mediumPerceptual the experience we have when we hearSound as Pressure changesa sound stimulus occurs when the movements or vibrations of an object cause pressure changes in the medium around itexample speakers when the diaphragm goes out it pushes air together called condensation which causes a density increase when it moves back in the air fills the extra space called refraction causes density decreasethis pattern of alternate pressure causes a sound wave which travels at 340ms in air and 1500ms in waterPressure change Pure tonesPure tones occur when pressure changes in the air happen in a mathematical pattern called a sine wave tuning forks use pure tones they are simple but rare in the environmentAmplitude is the height of the wave and it represents the loudness of the sound which is measured in decibels dB they use a logarithmic scale see pgs 26263 for equations and graphsFrequency is the number of cycles per second of the wave up and down is one cycle it represents the pitch of the sound measured in Hertz Hz equal to 1 cycles human can hear a range from 2020000HzPressure change Complex tones like pure tones they are periodic the rate of repetition is called the fundamental frequencycomplex tones consist of a number of puree tones which build the complex tone called addictive synthesis complex tones start as a single pure toneexample start with a 200Hz fundamental or first harmonic tone and build up in 200Hz increments 400600etc these higher tones are harmonics figures on pg 264frequency spectra is a way to indicate the first harmonic without drawing the wavePerceiving SoundLoudness
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