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PSYC 2410 (149)
Chapter 5

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PSYC 2410
Elena Choleris

Chapter 5 Summary Cell Membrane:  Polar head (glycerol – phosphate)  Cholesterol – gives rigidity  Glycolipids – protective function, interact with receptors, recognition of self Transmembrane proteins: signal proteins (folded, involved with communication) and channels (open or closed) Peripheral Membrane proteins: either in extra or intracellular fluid attached on outside of cell membrane, facilitate chemical reactions (catalyst) Diffusion – passive, along concentration gradient Electrostatic pressure – inside of cell is negative, force between ions, cannot control how much of an ion comes into cell when ion channels are open but we can regulate the number of ion channels we have and how many are open at a given time  Need 0mV to keep Cl- where it is, need 20mV to keep K+ in and 120mV to keep Na+ out Active – Na/K pumps, 3 Na out, 2 K in Post Synaptic Potentials:  Graded, fast, decremental, passive EPSPs: slightly depolarize the cell; increase the cell’s membrane potential and make it easier to elicit an action potential, due to opening of Na channels IPSPs: slightly hyperpolarize the cell, making the membrane potential more negative and make it harder to make an action potential, due to opening of K+ channels  Spatial summation – PSPs from different synapses add up to one bigger PSPs (can be either more positive, more negative or cancel out  Temporal summation – PSPs from same synapse in rapid succession, only positive or negative, cannot cancel out Action Potentials:  Non-decremental, all or none, maintain same energy, slower than PSPs, active, leave a trail of refractory periods (cannot travel in 2 directions)  Threshold reached, Na channels open and sodium rushes in, membrane potential reverses, K+ channels open and potassium rushes out of cell, sodium channels close but potassium still leaves the cell because of electrostatic pressure so potassium channels close gradually – causes hyperpolarization period (refractory period)  Absolute refractory period – cannot fire another action potential no matter how strong the stimulus  Relative refractory period - can fire another action potential but needs to be stronger  Firing rate of neurons – temporal summation o High intensity stimulus – rate limited by absolute refractory period o Low intensity stimulus – rate limited by relative refractory period  Number of neurons – spatial summation (strong stimulation will fire more neurons – the ones at rest, the ones that just got out of the relative refractory period and ones that are in the relative refractory period Myelinated Axons
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