PSYC 2410 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Slow-Wave Sleep, Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep Deprivation

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14.1-Stages of Sleep Three Standard Pschophysiological measures of Sleep
- EEG waves that accompany sleep are generally high voltage and slow
- REMs (Rapid eye movents) - occur under the closed eyelids of sleepers;
dominated by low
voltage fast waves; also loss of electromyographic activity in the neck muscles
periods
- three standard psychophysiological bases for defining stages of sleep:
electroencephalogram (EEG), electrooculogram (EOG) and neck electromyogram
(EMG)
- FIRST-NIGHT PHENOMENON- disturbance of sleep observe during the first night
in a sleep
labratory
Four Stages of Sleep EEG
- Four stages
- alkpha waves of 8-12 Hz EEG waves punctuatelow voltage high frequencywaves of
alert
wakefulness of
- Stage 1 - sleep EEG is low voltage, high frequency signal
- gradual increase in EEG voltage and a decrease in EEG frequency as the person
progresses
from stage 1-4
- Stage 2- slightly higher amplitde and lower frequencxy than the stage 1 EEG
- -puctuated by two characteristic wave forms: K complexes and sleep spindles
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- K-complex- single, large negative wave (upward deflection) followed
immediately by a
single large positive wave (downward deflection)
- sleep spindle- 1-2 second waxing and waning burst of 12-14 Hz waves
- Stage 3- defined by the occasional presence of delta waves (largest anbd
slowest EEG
waves) with a frequecy of 1-2 Hz
- Satge 4- defined by predominance of delta waves
- once sleepers reach stage 4, stay there and retreat back through stages to
stage 1
- Initial stage 1 sleep EEG (emergent stage EEG)- not marked by any striking
electromyographic changes
- subsequent periods of stage 1 sleep EEG (emergent stage EEG)- accompanied by
REMs and by
loss of tone in the muscles of the body core
- rest of night spent going back and forth through the stages
- each cycle tends to be about 90 min.
- night goes and more time spent in emergent stage 1 sleep
- brief periods of wakefulness we can't remember
- REM sleep- sleep associated with emergent stage 1 EEG
- NREM sleep (non-REM sleep)- all other stages of sleep ll together
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- stages 3+4- slow wave sleep (SWS)
- other characteristics of REM:
- -cerebral activity to waking levels in many brain structures
- -general increase in variability of autonomic nervous system activity
- -muscles and extremities occasionaly twitch and some degree of penile
errection in
males
REM Sleeping and Dreaming
- 80% of awakenings from REM sleep led to dream recall with story-like
narratives
Testing Common Beliefs about Dreaming
- external stimuli can be incorporated into dreams
- dreams run on "real time"
- everyone dreams
- Penile erections during dreams are not associated with erotic dreams
- sleep-walking and talking are not associated specifically with dreaming.
Interpretation of Dreams
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