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Chapter 16

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PSYC 2450
Anneke Olthof

Chapter 16 - The Family Socialization: The process by which children acquire the beliefs, values, and behaviors considered desirable or appropriate by their culture or subculture. The Family as a Social System - The complex network of relationships, interactions, and patterns of influence that characterizes a family with three or more members. - By one definition, family is “two or more persons related by birth, marriage, adoption, or choice” who have emotional ties and responsibilities to each other. - Mothers are the agents that mold children’s conduct and character.  Now rejected - Parents both influence their children. - Children influence the behavior and child-rearing practices of their parents. - Families are complex social systems, networks of reciprocal relationships and alliances that are constantly evolving and are greatly affected by community and cultural influences. - Family is a holistic structure  consists of interrelated parts, each of which affects and is affected by every other part. Each part contributes to the functioning of the whole. - Traditional nuclear families: A family unit consisting of a wife/mother, a husband/father and their dependent child or children. - Coparenting: Circumstance in which parents mutually support each other and function as a cooperative parenting team.  Results in a securely attached child - Children also exert effects on their parents. - Extended family: A group of blood relatives from more than one nuclear family (ex. grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces, nephews) who live together, forming a household. Families are Developing Systems - Dynamic systems - Ecological niche that a family occupies can also affect family interactions (ex. religion, socioeconomic status) - During the last 20 century, several dramatic social changes affected the makeup of typical families: o More single adults o Later marriage to pursue educational or career goals. o Decreased childbearing o More women are employed o More divorces o More single-parent families  single-parent family o More children living in poverty o More remarriages  blended (reconstituted families) Parental Socialization during Childhood and Adolescence Two Major Dimensions of Parenting - Acceptance/responsiveness: A dimension of parenting that describes the amount of responsiveness and affection that a parent displays toward a child. - Warmth, smile, praise, encourage their children. 1 - Demandingness/control: A dimension of parenting that describes how restrictive and demanding parents are. - Place limits on the children’s freedom of expressions by imposing demands. Ensure that rules are followed. 4 patterns of parenting Authoritarian parenting: A restrictive pattern of parenting in which adults set many rules for their children, expect strict obedience, and rely on power rather than reason to elicit compliance. - Not sensitive to a child’s differing viewpoints - Children not doing so well, moody, unhappy, easily annoyed, unfriendly, not very pleasant to be around Authoritative parenting: Flexible, democratic style of parenting in which warm, accepting parents provide guidance and control while allowing the child some say in deciding how best to meet challenges and obligations. - Much more responsive to their children’s point of views. - Seek children’s participation in family decision making - Children develop well, cheerful, socially responsible, self-reliant, achievement oriented, cooperative Permissive parenting: A pattern of parenting in which otherwise accepting adults make few demands of their children and rarely attempt to control their behavior. - Children were impulsive and aggressive, bossy, self-centered, lacking self-control, low in independence and achievement. Uninvolved parenting: A pattern of parenting that is both aloof (or even hostile) and overpermissive, almost as if parents cared neither about their children nor about what they want to become. - Seem to reject their children or are so overwhelmed with their own stresses and problems that they haven’t had much time or energy to devote to child rearing - By age 3, children are aggressive  temper tantrums, disruptive and do poorly in school. - Hostile, selfish, rebellious adolescents, prone to trying dugs and alcohol Behavioral Control vs. Psychological Control - Behavioral control: Attempts to regulate a child’s or an adolescent’s conduct through firm discipline and monitoring of his or her conduct. (Ex. withholding privileges, grounding, taking away toys for misbehavior) - Psychological control: Attempts to influence a child or adolescent’s behavior by such psychological means as withholding affection or inducing shame or guilt. (Ex. withholding affection, or inducing shame or guilt) Parent Effects or Child Effects Parent-effects model: Model of family influence in which parents (particularly mothers) are believed to influence their children rather than vice versa. Child-effects model: Model of family influence in which children are believed to influence their parents rather than vice versa. 2 Transactional model: Model of family influence in which parent and child are believed to influence each other reciprocally. Social Class and Ethnic Variations in Child Rearing Social Class Differences in Child Rearing - Economically and working-class parents tend to stress obedience and respect for authority - Be more restrictive and less authoritarian, using more power-assertive discipline - Reason with their children less frequently, and show less warmth and affection - Due to the hardships of their life condition  makes parents more edgy and irritable - Tend to become depressed which increases marital conflicts Ethnic Variations in Child Rearing - Aboriginal and Hispanic parents are more collectivistic and stress communal rather than individual goals, are more inclined than European American parents to maintain close ties to a variety of relatives. - Insist that their children display calm, proper and polite behaviors and a strong respect for authority figures. The Quest for Autonomy: Renegotiating the Parent-Child Relationship during Adolescence Autonomy: Capacity to make decisions independently, serve as one’s own source of emotional strength, and otherwise manage life tasks without depending on others for assistance; an important developmental task of adolescence. - Authoritative approach from parents is the best way to slowly let the children go The Influence of Siblings and Sibling Relationships Changes in the family system when a new baby arrives - After a new baby arrives, mothers typically devote less warm and playful attention to their older child. - Worst with older children  resent losing their mother’s attention over the new baby - Sibling rivalry: Spirit of competition, jealousy, and resentment that may arise between two or more siblings. Sibling relationships over the course of childhood - Siblings are more likely to get along if the parents get along - Sibling relationships are friendlier if parents make an effort to monitor their children’s activities. - Conflicts aren’
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