Textbook Notes (368,434)
Canada (161,878)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 2450 (267)
Chapter

PSYC 2450- CH 7.docx

5 Pages
94 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2450
Professor
Anneke Olthof
Semester
Winter

Description
PSYC 2450- CH 7: Sensation, Perception & Learning Sensation- detection of stimuli by the sensory receptors and the transmission of this information to the brain. Perception- process by which we categorize and interpret sensory stimuli Early Controversies About Sensory & Perceptual Development • Empiricists believes children are born as blank slates and we have to learn to interpret everything through experiences- including our senses. (William James) • Nativists say that newborns are born with many abilities already there (Emmanuel Kant, Rene Descartes) Enrichment Theory- (Piaget) theory specifying that we must add to sensory stimulation by drawing on stored knowledge in order to perceive a meaningful world. Differentiation Theory- (Eleanor Gibson) theory specifying that perception involves detecting distinctive features or cues that are contained in the sensory stimulation we receive. Distinctive Features- characteristics of a stimulus that remain constant; dimensions on which two or more objects differ can be discriminated (sometimes called invariances or invariant features) Research Methods Used to Study the Infant’s Sensory and Perceptual Experiences • Researchers have devised methods for understanding what infants might be sensing & perceiving: The Preference Method-method used to gain info about infants’perceptual abilities by presenting two (or more) stimuli and observing which stimulus the infant prefers. • Used to see if infants could discriminate visual patterns- learned that infants prefer patterned stimuli • Shortcoming- if infant shows no preferences, it’s not clear if they failed to discriminate between them or if they found them equally interesting. Habituation- decrease in response to a stimulus that has become familiar through repetition • If infants stop responding to stimuli it tells us that they recognize them • One stimuli is presented until the infant stops responding to it (habituates) & then a second stimulus is presented and if the infant differentiates between the two stimuli he will attend closely to it & show a change in respiration or heart rate: Dishabituation- an increase in responsiveness that occurs when stimulation changes. • Researchers must pay careful attention to the familiarization timeline being presented. The Evoked Potentials Method- an evoked potential is a change in patterning of the brain waves that indicates that an individual detects (senses) a stimulus The High Amplitude Sucking Method- a method of assessing infants’perceptual capabilities that capitalizes on the ability of infants to make interesting events last by varying the rate at which they suck on a special pacifier. • The pacifier enables the infants to exert some control over the stimulus- infant can make the stimulus last by producing higher amplitude sucking (based on baseline sucking) Infant Sensory Capabilities Hearing- • Young infants can hear well- even newborns can discriminate sounds that differ in loudness, direction, duration & frequency • Infants prefer their mother’s voice to others • Sensitive to phonetic contrasts in speech Phonemes- smallest meaningful sound units that make up a spoken language. • Infants less than a week old can detect differences between the vowel sounds i and a. • 3-6 month old infants are better than adults at perceiving certain phonemes not a part of their language- allows them to learnANY language they are exposed to. • They soon learn to recognize words they hear often • Even mild hearing losses may have adverse developmental effects • Otitis Media- common bacterial infection of the middle ear that produced mild to moderate hearing loss. Taste, Smell & Touch- • Babies are born with taste preferences- prefer sweet • They avoid unpleasant smells • Soon come to recognize mother’s odour if they are breastfed • They’re also sensitive to touch, temperature & pain Vision • Least mature of newborn’s capabilities • Changes in brightness will elicit a subcortical pupillary reflex which shows they are sensitive to light • Can discriminate some colours • Tracks moving targets VisualAcuity- a person’s ability to see small objects & fine detail • Don’t see fine detail well- distance vision is about 20/600 • Objects all seem blurry to them because they have trouble accommodating (changing the shape of the lens to bring things into focus) • Improves rapidly over first 6 months Visual Contrast- amount of light/dark transition in a visual stimulus • Infants require more of this to see Visual Perception • Develops quickly in the first year • For the first two months babies are “stimulus seekers” who prefer moderately complex, high contrast targets- preferably ones that move • Between 2-6 months of age they begin to explore visual targets systematically, become increasingly sensitive to movement, and begin to perceive visual forms & recognize faces. • By 9-12 months infants can construct forms from small cues. • Newborns o display some size constancy o they lack ste
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2450

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit