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Chapter 5

PSYC 2650 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Memory Rehearsal, Free Recall, Cognitive Psychology

Course Code
PSYC 2650
Anneke Olthof

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Cognitive Psychology: Chapter 5
- One way to frame learning and memory:
- Analogy to creating, storing, and opening a computer file
- This view is problematic for at least two reasons:
New learning is grounded in previously learned (stored) knowledge
If you’re learning something for a specific purpose, you can only get the information from one
certain way, can’t necessarily go into it with another angle
Effective learning depends on how the information will be later retrieved
The Modal Model
- Information processing
A perspective in cognitive psychology in which complex mental events involve a number of discrete
These components receive input from, and sent input to, one another
- The modal model (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Waugh & Norman, 1965) makes a distinction between two kinds of
Short-term memory (STM) holds the information currently in use (readily accessible)
Long-term memory (LTM) all of the information one can remember (what’s already in your mind)
- Working memory (WM) a more recent term for short-term memory, emphasizing its function
- Experiments supporting the modal model:
Participants hear a long series of words (e.g., 30)
The position of an item in the presentation list is its serial position
Task is to repeat back as many words as they can in any order; free-recall procedure
- Primacy effect
With free recall, participants are likely to remember the first few items in the list
Based in long-term memory
During list presentation, the first few items receive the most memory rehearsal and are transferred
from WM to LTM
- Recency effect
With free recall, participants are likely to remember the last few items in the list
Based in working memory
At the end of list presentation, the last few items are currently in working memory and are often the
first items to be reported
- 30 seconds of filled delay displaces the last few items from working
If you interfere with working memory, you won’t get the
recency effect anymore
- This eliminates the recency effect
- 30 seconds of unfilled delay does not change the recency effect
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