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PSYC 2740 (174)
Chapter 5

developmental chapter 5

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PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

PSYC 2450- Chapter 5 Summary: Birth and the Newborn Baby Childbirth and Culture: How Birthing Has Changed - Birth was a female social ritual - Childbirth was assisted by a midwife Reducing The Risks of Childbirth - Women had a 1 in 10 chance of dying from giving birth - Physicians usually in charge now - Anaesthesia for pain is standard practice Contemporary Settings for Childbirth - 1/3 of women prefer birthing center over hospital - Doula: the most important female servant The Birth Process - Parturition: the process of uterine, cervical, and other changes that brings on labor, begins about two weeks before delivery o Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH): a protein that determines the timing of parturition - During parturition, rising levels of estrogen stimulate uterus to contract and cervix to become more flexible - Contractions (mild tightening’s of the uterus) that expel the fetus begin 266 days after conception o “False” contractions aren’t frequent, rhythmic, and painful like real ones Stages of Childbirth - Three overlapping stages of labor o 1) Dialation of the cervix is the longest lasting 12-14 hours  Contractions 15-20 minutes apart then to 2-5 minutes apart till the cervix is 10 centimeters apart o 2) Descent and emergence of the baby lasting up to an hour  Ends when the baby emerges completely out of the mother’s body  If baby needs more help, Doctor may use a vacuum extraction with a suction cup to pull baby out  Still attached by umbilical cord o 3) Expulsion of the placenta lasts between 10 minutes to an hour  Placenta and umbilical cord expelled from mother - Episiotomy: surgical cut between vagina and anus for speedy delivery Electronic Fetal Monitoring - Monitoring of fetal heartbeat during labor and delivery - Externally, internally, or telemetry - Can detect risks and complications Vaginal Versus Caesarean Delivery - Caesarean Delivery: Delivery of a baby by surgical removal from the uterus - Commonly preformed when labor progress too slow or there is complication - Usually for first birth, babies with large heads, etc. PSYC 2450- Chapter 5 Summary: Birth and the Newborn Baby - Increase in this type of delivery - Some believe it is unnecessary or harmful, carry risks of serious complications Medicated versus Nonmedicated Delivery - Natural/Prepared Childbirth: Methods that use instruction, breathing exercises, and social support to induce controlled physical responses to uterine contractions and reduce fear and pain o Minimize use of drugs that pose risks - Improvements in medicine have led mothers to choose pain relief - Regional (epidural or spinal) injections increasingly popular o New forms of medications The Newborn Baby - Birth for babies is stressful: stimulating huge amounts of two hormones. - Neonatal Period: First four weeks of life o Time of transition from intrauterine dependency to independent existence Size and Appearance - Neonate: Newborn baby up to 4 weeks old o 50 cm long, 3.5 kg o Boys slightly longer and heavier th th o Lose fluid weight, and gain it back by the 10 – 14 day - Large head, various skin conditions, birthmarks, receding chin o Temporary shaping because of skull bones not yet fused - Fontanels: Soft spots on head of young infant o Will close over within first months of life - Very thin skin - Lanugo: Fuzzy prenatal body hair - Vernix Caseosa: Oily substance on a neonate’s skin that protects against infection Body Systems - Before birth, baby depends on mothers for nutrients o After birth, they must do everything themselves - Anoxia: Lack of oxygen which may cause brain damage o Can leave permanent brain damage or death - Fetus relies on umbilical cord for food - Meconium: Fetal waste matter, excreted during the first few days after birth - Neonatal Jaundice: Three or four days after birth, a condition in many newborns caused by immaturity of liver and evidenced by yellowish appearance o Can cause brain damage if not treated promptly Medical and Behavioral Assessment - First few minutes to weeks are crucial for development PSYC 2450- Chapter 5 Summary: Birth and the Newborn Baby The Apgar Scale - Standard measurement of a newborn’s condition. o Assesses appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, and respiration o One minute after birth and 5 minutes after birth - Score under 5: baby needs immediate lifesaving - Score may be affected by amount of medication the mother receives - Apgar scores at 5 minutes of life predicts survival Assessing Neurological Status: The Brazelton Scale - Neurological and behavioral test to measure neonate’s responses to the environment o Assesses motor organization such as reflexes, excitability - Takes 30 minutes, scores based on baby’s best performance Neonatal Screening for Medical Conditions - Example: Phenylketonuria (PKU) o Mental retardation if not treated in first 3-6 weeks of life o However tests may generate false-positive results - Routine screening for rare disorders are expensive - Can now screen for over 20 disorders with one single blood cell specimen States of Arousal and Activity Levels - State of Arousal: Infant’s physiological and behavioral status at a given moment in the periodic daily cycle of wakefulness, sleep, and activity - Newborns spend 75% asleep with every 3 to 4 hours being awakened - Beginning of the first month, nighttime sleep periods lengthen and total sleep time diminishes as babies grow - Canadian parents time feeding as so to encourage nighttime sleep - To sooth crying babies: rocking or swaying, wrapping them snuggly, and rhythmic sounds Complications of Childbirth- And Their Aftermath - Boys’ deliveries likely to involve complications over girls o Generally because they are larger - Preterm (Premature) Infants: Infants born before completing the 37 weeks th of gestation - Small-for-Gestational Age Infants: Infants whose birth weight is less than that of 90% of babies of the same gestational age, as a result of slow fetal growth
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