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PSYC 3020

Psychology of Law Key Terms Chapter 1: An Introduction to Forensic Psychology - Forensic Psychology: A field of psychology that deals with all aspects of human behaviour as it relates to the law or legal system - Clinical forensic psychologists: Psychologists who are broadly concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental health issues as they pertain to the law or legal system - Other issues that clinical forensic psychologists are interested in may include, but are not limited to, the following: o ¦ Divorce and child custody mediation o ¦ Determinations of criminal responsibility ( insanity) and fitness to stand trial o ¦ Providing expert testimony on questions of a psychological nature o ¦ Personnel selection ( e. g., for law enforcement agencies) ¦ Conducting critical incident stress debriefings with police officers o ¦ Designing and conducting treatment programs for offenders - Forensic anthropology. Forensic anthropologists examine the remains of deceased victims to determine key facts about them, such as their gender, age, and appearance. - ¦ Forensic linguistics. Forensic linguists examine the spoken and written word in an attempt to assist criminal investigators. - Forensic chemistry. Forensic chemists study the chemical aspects of crime scenes, which can include an analysis of paint particles, dyes, fibres, and other materials. - Forensic ondontology. Forensic ondontologists study the dental aspects of criminal activity, which can include identifying deceased victims through dental records - ¦ Forensic pathology. Forensic pathologists examine the remains of dead bodies in an attempt to determine the time and cause of death through physical autopsy. - ¦ Forensic entomology. Forensic entomologists are concerned with how insects can assist with criminal investigations. For example, they can help to determine when someone died based on an analysis of insect presence ( e. g., different types of insects will be present on a corpse at different points in time) and/ or insect development - Experimental forensic psychologists: Psychologists who are broadly concerned with the study of human behaviour as it relates to the law or legal system - THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGY AND LAW o Psychology and the law: The use of psychology to examine the operation of the legal system o Psychology in the law: The use of psychology in the legal system as that system operates o Psychology of the law: The use of psychology to examine the law itself - THE HISTORY OF FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY o Eye witness; Shortly after Binet’s study, a German psychologist named William Stern also began conducting studies examining the suggestibility of witnesses ( Ceci & Bruck, 1993). The ― reality experiment‖ that is now commonly used by eyewitness researchers to study eyewit-ness recall and recognition can in fact be attributed to Stern. o o - ADVOCATES OF EARLY FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY IN THE NORTH o The father of forensic psychology, Hugo Munsterberg, is best known for his controversial book On the Witness Stand, which many people believe pushed North American psychologists into the legal arena. - THEORIES OF CRIME o Biological Theories of Crime  ¦ Sheldon’s ( 1949) constitutional theory. Sheldon proposed that crime is largely a product of an individual’s body build, or somatotype, which is assumed to be linked to an individual’s temperament. According to Sheldon, endomorphs ( obese) are jolly, ectomorphs ( thin) are introverted, and mesomorphs ( muscular) are bold. Sheldon’s studies indicated that, because of their aggressive nature, mesomorphs were more likely to become involved with crime.  ¦ Jacobs, Brunton, Melville, Brittan, and McClemont’s ( 1965) chromosomal theory. Jacobs and her colleagues proposed that chromosomal irregularity is linked to criminal behaviour. A normal female has two X chromosomes, whereas a normal male has one X and one Y chromosome. However, it was discovered that there were men with two Y chromosomes, which, it was proposed, made them more masculine and, therefore, more aggressive. According to Jacobs and her colleagues, this enhanced aggressiveness would result in an increased chance that these men would commit violent crimes.  ¦ Mark and Ervin’s ( 1970) dyscontrol theory. Mark and Ervin proposed that lesions in the temporal lobe and limbic sys-tem result in electrical disorganization within the brain, which can lead to a dyscontrol syndrome. According to Mark and Ervin, symptoms of this dyscontrol syndrome can include outbursts of sudden physical violence, impul-sive sexual behaviour, and serious traffic violations. o Sociological Theories of Crime  ¦ Merton’s ( 1938) strain theory. Merton proposed that crime is largely a product of the strain felt by certain individuals in society ( typically from the lower class) who have restricted access to legitimate means, such as education, of achieving valued goals of success. Merton argued that, while some of these individuals will be happy with the lesser goals that are achievable, otherswill turn to illegitimate means, such as crime, in an attempt to achieve the valued goals.  ¦ Sutherland’s ( 1939) differential association theory. Sutherland proposed that criminal behaviour is learned through social interactions in which people are exposed to values that can be either favourable or unfavourable to violations of the law. More specifically, Sutherland maintained that people are likely to become involved in criminal activity when they learn more values ( i. e., attitudes) that are favourable to violations of the law than values that are unfavourable to it.  ¦ Becker’s ( 1963) labelling theory. Unlike most other theories of crime, Becker proposed that deviance ( e. g., antisocial behaviour) is not inherent to an act but a label attached to an act by society. Thus, a ― criminal‖ results primarily from a process of society labelling an individual as a criminal. This labelling process is thought to promote the individual’s deviant behaviour through a self- fulfilling prophecy, defined by Becker as a prediction, which is originally false but which is made true by the person’s actions. o Psychological Theories of Crime  ¦ Bowlby’s ( 1944) theory of maternal deprivation. Bowlby argued that the early separation of children from their mothers prevents effective social development from taking place. Without effective social development, Bowlby hypothesized that children will experience long- term problems in developing positive social relationships and will instead develop antisocial behaviour patterns.  ¦ Eysenck’s ( 1964) biosocial theory of crime. Eysenck believed that some individuals ( e. g., extraverts and neurotics) are born with cortical and autonomic nervous systems that influence their ability to learn from the consequences of their behaviour, especially the negative consequences expe-rienced in childhood as part of the socialization and conscience- building process. Because of their poor condi- tionability, it is assumed that individuals who exhibit high levels of extraversion and neuroticism will have strong anti-social inclinations.  Gottfredson and Hirschi’s ( 1990) general theory of crime. Gottfredson and Hirschi argue that low self- control, internalized early in life, in the presence of criminal opportuni-ties explains an individual’s propensity to commit crimes. o Expert witness: A witness who provides the court with information ( often an opinion on a particular matter) that assists the court in understanding an issue of relevance to a case o According to Hess ( 1987, 1999), psychology and law differ along at least seven dif-ferent dimensions:  1. Knowledge. Knowledge gain in psychology is accomplished through cumulative research. In the law, knowledge comes through legal precedent, logical thinking, and case law.  2. Methodology. Methodological approaches in psychology are predominantly nomo-thetic. In other words, the goal is to uncover broad patterns and general trends through the use of controlled experiments and statistical methods. In contrast, the law is idiographic in that it operates on a case- by- case basis.  3. Epistemology. Psychologists assume that it is possible to uncover hidden truths if the appropriate experiments are conducted. Truth in the law is defined subjectively and is based on who can provide the most convincing story of what really happened.  4. Criteria. In terms of a willingness to accept something as true, psychologists are cau-tious. To accept a hypothesis, results must be replicated, and conservative statistical criteria are used. The law decides what is true based on a single case and criteria that are often more lenient.  5. Nature of law. The goal in psychology is to describe how people behave. Law, however, is prescriptive. It tells people how they should behave.  6. Principles. Good psychologists always consider alternative explanations for their find-ings. Good lawyers always convince the judge and jury that their explanation of the findings is the only correct explanation. - CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTING EXPERT TESTIMONY o General acceptance test: A standard for accepting expert testimony, which states that expert testimony will be admissible in court if the basis of the testimony is generally accepted within the relevant scientific community o Daubert criteria: A standard for accepting expert testimony, which states that scientific evidence is valid if the research on which it is based has been peer reviewed, is testable, has a recognized rate of error, and adheres to professional standards o Mohan criteria: A standard for accepting expert testimony, which states that expert testimony will be admissible in court if the testimony is relevant, is necessary for assisting the trier of fact, does not violate any exclusionary rules, and is provided by an expert.  R. v. McIntosh and McCarthy ( 1997), in which a judge decided that testimony relating to the accuracy of eyewitness testimony was common knowledge and, as a result, inadmissible. Most of the research in the area of eyewitness accuracy indicates that the judge was most likely wrong in this case. Chapter 1 Summary: 1. Forensic psychology can be defined in a narrow or broad fashion. Narrow definitions focus only on the clinical or experimental aspects of the field, whereas broad definitions are less restrictive and encompass both aspects. 2. Forensic psychologists can play different roles. Clinical forensic psychologists are pri-marily interested in mental health issues as they pertain to law. Experimental foren-sic psychologists are interested in studying any aspect of human behaviour that relates to the law ( e. g., eyewitness memory, jury decision making, risk assessment). Chapter 2: Police Psychology - POLICE SELECTION o Police selection procedures: A set of procedures used by the police to either screen out undesirable candidates or select in desirable candidates o Selection procedures; Background checks, Medical exams, Selection interviews 98.1 Personality tests 91.6 Drug testing 88.4 Physical agility tests 80.0 Polygraph tests 65.8 Recommendation letters 46.5 Cognitive ability tests o Job analysis: A procedure for identifying the knowledge, skills, and abilities that make a good police officer o Constructing and Validating Selection Instruments Recall that the goals in stage two of the police selection process are ( 1) to develop a selection instrument for measuring the extent to which police applicants possess relevant KSAs ( construction) and ( 2) to ensure that this instrument relates to measures of police performance ( validation).  The most common validation measure used in police selection focuses on predictive validity in which the goal is to deter-mine if there is a relationship between scores obtained from a selection instrument and measures of actual job performance. - THE VALIDITY OF POLICE SELECTION INSTRUMENTS o Selection interview: In recruiting police officers, an interview used by the police to determine the extent to which an applicant possesses the knowledge, skills, and abilities deemed important for the job  one of the most common selection instruments used by the police. Typically, selection interviews take the form of a semi- structured interview. o Psychological Testing  Cognitive test; Procedure for measuring verbal, mathematical, memory, and reasoning abilities (reliance on cognitive tests is supported by empirical research)  RCMP Police Aptitude Test ( RPAT). The RPAT consists of 114 multiple- choice questions designed to evaluate an applicant’s potential aptitude for police work. More specifically, the test meas-ures seven core skills that are considered essential in performing the duties of a police offi-cer: written composition, comprehension, memory, judgment, observation, logic, and computation  Personality Tests  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: An assessment instrument for identify-ing people with psychopathological problems;79 of institutions use it  Inwald Personality Inventory ( IPI). Unlike the MMPI tests, the IPI was developed specifically for the law enforcement community. According to Inwald ( 1992), the creator of the IPI, the purpose of this selec-tion instrument is to identify police applicants who are most suitable for police work by measuring their personality attributes and behaviour patterns. The instrument consists of 310 true- false questions that measure factors such as stress reactions, interpersonal diffi- culties, and alcohol and other drug use; higher predictive validity; slightly better  assessment centre, a procedure that is growing in popularity in Europe and North America ( Lowry, 1996). An assessment centre is a facility at which the behaviour of police applicants can be observed in a number of different ways by multiple observers. The primary selection instrument used within an assessment centre is the situational test, which involves simulations of real- world policing tasks. The situational tests used in assessment centres attempt to tap into the KSAs identified as part of a job analysis. - POLICE DISCRETION o Police discretion is the term that represents the critical faculty that individual officers must possess that will allow them to differentiate and discriminate between those circumstances that require absolute adherence to the letter of the law and those occasions when a degree of latitude is justified, based on the officer’s knowledge, experience, or instinct.  Activele encouraged to use discression when dealing with youth crime (30-40%)  An integral part of the program is the resolution conference, in which the offender and his or her family are brought together with the victim and the police in an attempt to come up with a plan to ( 1) compensate the victim, ( 2) penalize the youth, ( 3) provide support to the youth’s family, and ( 4) establish a monitoring scheme to ensure the youth complies with the program o Offenders with Mental Illness  When police officers encounter an individual with a mental illness who is creating a disturbance, there are generally three options: ( 1) they can transport that person to a psychiatric institution of some kind, ( 2) they can arrest the person and take him or her to jail, or ( 3) they can resolve the matter informally  Hoch’s London Study; the results from this study indicate that people who definitely had a mental illness ( PMI- Definite) had significantly more interactions with the police than people with no mental illness ( NPMI). Similarly, people with a mental ill-ness were more frequently charged and arrested compared with people without a mental ill-ness. Specifically, Hoch et al. found that “ people with mental illness were arrested, charged, or both 10% more often than those without mental illness” o The Case of Ernst v. Quinonez et al. ( 2003; excessive force, false o Controling Police Discretion  Another method for controlling police discretion is the enactment of government legislation to deal with a particular problem. As indicated previously, B. C.’ s Violence Against Women in Relationships Policy is an example of such legislation.  Use- of- force continuum: A model that is supposed to guide police officer decision making in use- of- force situations by indicating what level of force is appropriate given the suspect’s behaviour and other environmental conditions - POLICE STRESS o Occupational stressors: In policing, stressors relating to the job itself (lack of career development/paperwork) o Organizational stressors: In policing, stressors relating to organizational issues (human suffering, irregular work schedule) o Criminal Justice Stressors ¦ Ineffectiveness of the corrections system. Officers are alarmed by the recidivism rate of criminals who seem to be perpetually “ on the street” rather than incarcerated. ¦ Unfavourable court decisions. Many court decisions are viewed by officers as unfairly increasing the difficulty of police work. 4. Public Stressors ¦ o Distorted press accounts. Reports of incidents are often inaccurate and perceived as derogatory by officers, whether or not the inaccuracy is intentional. ¦ Ineffectiveness of referral agencies. o The Buffalo Cardio-metabolic occupationalpolice stress (BCOPS) study  ¦ The completion of questionnaires, which measure demographic, lifestyle, and psychological factors ( e. g., depression) ¦ Measurements of bone density and body composition ¦ Ultrasounds of arteries ¦ 18 salivary cortisol samples throughout the day, and in response to a series of challenges Blood samples ¦ The quantity and quality of sleep that the officers are getting, as measured by a watchlike device called an actigraph ¦ Work history records - SUMMARY o 1. The development of a useful police selection process requires two major steps: ( 1) an analysis of the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are required for the job, and ( 2) the construction and validation of selection instruments that measure these qualities and compare them with job performance. 2. Some of the most common police selection procedures are semi- structured inter-views, psychological tests, and the use of assessment centres. 3. Police discretion refers to the power that police officers have to decide which laws apply to a given situation and whether to apply them. Many view police discretion as an inevitable part of police work and, so long as it is used in an unbiased manner, police discretion can be very useful. 4. Nearly every decision that a police officer makes requires some degree of discretion. However, four of the most commonly studied areas of police discretion deal with youth crime, offenders with mental illnesses, domestic violence, and use- of- force situations. o 5. Policing is considered by many to be one of the most stressful occupations. Sources of stress include organizational stressors, occupational stressors, criminal justice stressors, and public stressors. Chapter 3: The Psychology of Police Investigations - police interrogation goal is to gain information from the suspect that furthers the investigation, such as the location of important evidence, another key goal is to obtain a confession - The Mr. Big Technique: procedure generally involves undercover police officers who pose as members of a criminal organization and attempt to lure the suspect into the gang. Often the suspect is made to commit some minor crimes ( for which he may be rewarded) and once committed to the organization, the suspect is ― interviewed‖ for a higher level job. However, before the suspect can seal the deal with the boss, Mr. Big, he must confess to a serious crime ( the one under investigation). - Reid model: A nine- step model of interrogation used frequently in North America to extract confessions from suspects o 1. Interrogators with guilty expectations asked more questions that indicated their belief in the suspect’s guilt. For example, they would ask, ― How did you find the key that was hidden behind the DVD player?‖ instead of ― Do you know anything about the key that was hidden behind the DVD player?‖ 2. Interrogators with guilty expectations used a higher frequency of interrogation techniques compared with interrogators with innocent expectations, especially at the outset of the interrogation. 3. Interrogators with guilty expectations judged more suspects to be guilty, regardless of whether the suspect was actually guilty. 4. Interrogators indicated that they exerted more pressure on suspects to confess when, unbeknownst to them, the suspect was innocent. 5. Suspects had fairly accurate perceptions of interrogator behaviour ( i. e., innocent suspects believed their interrogators were exerting more pressure). 6. Neutral observers viewed interrogators with guilty expectations as more coercive, especially against innocent suspects, and they viewed suspects in the guilty expectation condition as more defensive. In sum, these findings indicate that investigative biases led to coercive interrogations that caused suspects to appear more guilty ( to both the interrogator and neutral observers). o At a general level, the Reid model consists of a three- part process. The first stage is to gather evidence related to the crime and to interview witnesses and victims. The second stage is to conduct a nonaccusatorial interview of the suspect to assess any evidence of deception ( i. e., to determine whether the suspect is lying when he or she claims to be innocent). The third stage is to conduct an accusatorial interrogation of the suspect ( if he or she is perceived to be guilty) in which a nine- step procedure is implemented, with the primary objective being to secure a confession  1. The suspect is immediately confronted with his or her guilt. If the police do not have any evidence against the suspect at this time, then the interrogator can hide this fact and, if necessary, pretend that such evidence exists. 2. Psychological themes are then developed that allow the suspect to justify, rationalize, or excuse the crime. 3. The interrogator interrupts any statements of denial by the suspect to ensure the suspect does not get the upper hand in the interrogation. 4. The interrogator overcomes the suspect’s objections to the charges to a point at which the suspect becomes quiet and withdrawn. 5. Once the suspect has become withdrawn, the interrogator ensures that the suspect does not tune out of the interrogation by reducing the psychological distance between the interrogator and the suspect, such as by physically moving closer to the suspect. 6. The interrogator then exhibits sympathy and understanding, and the suspect is urged to come clean. For example, the interrogator might try to appeal to the suspect’s sense of decency. 7. The suspect is offered face- saving explanations for the crime, which makes self-incrimination easier to achieve. 8. Once the suspect accepts responsibility for the crime ( typically by agreeing with one of the face- saving explanations), the interrogator develops this admission into a full confession. 9. Finally, the interrogator gets the suspect to write and sign a full confession. o Techniques used in the Reid model of interrogation can be broken down into two general categories. These categories are often referred to by different names, including friendly and unfriendly techniques, Mutt and Jeff techniques, and minimization and maximization techniques. You will probably know them as good cop– bad cop techniques.  This research indicates that the technique has 3of potential problems.. The first two relate to the ability of investigators to detect deception and to the biases that may result when an interrogator believes, perhaps incorrectly, that a suspect is guilty. The third problem is the possibility that these practices will result in false confessions o Investigator bias: Bias that can result when police officers enter an interrogation setting already believing that the suspect is guilty o ALTERNATIVES TO THE REID THEORY  police agencies in England and Wales have gone through several phases of change in an attempt to reduce oppressive interrogation practices. Currently, these agencies use the so- called PEACE model to guide their interrogations. PEACE is an acronym for planning and preparation, engage and explain, account, closure, and evaluation. this model provides an inquisitorial framework within which to conduct police interrogations ( compared with the accusatorial framework used in the Reid model) and is based on an interview method known as conversation management, which encourages information gathering more than securing a confession.  Recently, a call has been made by Canadian researchers to replace the Reid model of interrogation that is typically taught in Canada with the PEACE model While one police force ( the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary) has committed to reforming its interrogation practices, it is still too early to know if the PEACE model will be incorporated into Canadian policing as it has been in England and Wales. o FALSE CONFESSIONS  False confession: A confession that is either intentionally fabricated or is not based on actual knowledge of the facts that form its content  Retracted confession: A confession that the confessor later declares to be false  Disputed confession: A confession that is later disputed at trial  DIFFERENT TYPES OF FALSE CONFESSIONS o voluntary false confessions occur when someone voluntarily confesses to a crime he or she did not commit without any elicitation from the police. Research has indicated that people voluntarily false confess for a variety of rea-sons. For example, ( 1) a morbid desire for notoriety, ( 2) the person being unable to distinguish fact from fantasy, ( 3) the need to make up for pathological feelings of guilt by receiving punishment, or ( 4) a desire to protect somebody else from harm (which may be particularly prevalent among juveniles). o Coerced- compliant false confessions are those in which the suspect confesses to a crime, even though the suspect is fully aware that he or she did not commit it. This type of false confession is perhaps the most common Unlike voluntary false confessions, these confessions are caused by the use of coercive interrogation tactics on the part of the police, such as the maximization techniques may be given so the suspect can ( 1) escape further interrogation, ( 2) gain a promised benefit, or ( 3) avoid a threatened punishment o Coerced- internalized false confession: A confession that results from suggestive interrogation techniques, whereby the confessor actually comes to believe he or she committed the crime; several vulnerability factors are associated with this type of false confession, including ( 1) a history of substance abuse or some other interference with brain function, ( 2) the inability of people to detect discrepancies between what they observed and what has been erroneously suggested to them, and ( 3) factors associated with mental state, such as severe anxiety, confusion, or feelings of guilt.  Compliance: A tendency to go along with demands made by people perceived to be in authority, even though the person may not agree with them  Internalization: The acceptance of guilt for an act, even if the person did not actually commit the act  Confabulation: The reporting of events that never actually occurred - PROFILING o Criminal profiling: An investigative technique for identifying the major personality and behavioural characteristics of an individual based upon an analysis of the crimes he or she has committed o VICLAS: The Violent Crime Linkage Analysis System, which was developed by the RCMP to collect and analyze information on serious crimes from across Canada o Linkage blindness: An inability on the part of the police to link geographically dispersed serial crimes committed by the same offender because of a lack of information sharing among police agencies  For example, in a now- classic study of criminal profiling, Pinizzotto and Finkel ( 1990) describe the process of profiling as an equation in the form: WHAT + WHY = WHO. The WHAT of the crime refers to the material that profilers collect at the start of an investigation, such as crime- scene photos, autopsy reports, and descriptions of victims. The WHY of the crime refers to the motivation for the crime and each crime scene behaviour. The WHO of the crime refers to the actual profile that is eventually construct-ed once the WHAT and the WHY components have been determined. o Different types of profiling methods  Deductive criminal profiling: Profiling the background characteristics of an unknown offender based on evidence left at the crime scenes by that particular offender  Inductive criminal profiling: Profiling the background characteristics of an unknown offender based on what we know about other solved cases  Organized- disorganized model: A profiling model used by the FBI that assumes the crime scenes and backgrounds of serial offenders can be categorized as organized or disorganized  Organized crime scene behaviours reflect a well- planned and controlled crime, while disorganized behaviours reflect an impulsive crime, which is chaotic in nature. Similarly, an offender’s background can be classified as either organized or disorganized o Classic trait model: A model of personality that assumes the primary determinants of behaviour are stable, internal traits - GEOGRAPHIC PROFILING o An investigative technique that uses crime scene locations to predict the most likely area where an offender resides  In simple terms, geographic profiling uses crime scene locations to predict the most likely area where the offender resides. Geographic profiling is used primarily for prioritizing potential suspects. This prioritization is accomplished by rank ordering the suspects based on how close they live to the predicted home location, so the suspect who lives closest to the predicted home location would be focused on first  Geographic profiling systems: Computer systems that use mathematical models of offender spatial behaviour to make predictions about where unknown serial offenders are likely to reside  Heuristics: Simple general rules that can be used to make decisions and solve problems. In some instances, a reliance on heuristics can result in biased decisions. In other cases, heuristics can result in reasonably accurate decisions - SUMMARY for chapter 3 - 1. The police attempt to achieve two goals when conducting interrogations: ( 1) to gain information that furthers the investigation and ( 2) to obtain a confession from the suspect. Police officers in North America sometimes use the Reid model of interrogation to interrogate suspects. This model advocates the use of psychologically based interrogation tactics to break down a suspect’s resistance to telling the truth. The tactics used in the Reid model of interrogation can be broken down into minimization and maximization techniques. 2. The three potential problems with the Reid model of interrogation are ( 1) the inability of police officers to accurately detect deception, ( 2) biases that result from pre- suming a suspect is guilty, and ( 3) an increased likelihood that suspects will make false confessions. 3. False confessions must be differentiated from retracted confessions and disputed con- fessions. A false confession is one that is either intentionally fabricated or is not based on actual knowledge of the facts in a case. A retracted confession is simply an individual’s statement that his or her confession is false. A disputed confession is one that is disputed at trial, often because of a legal technicality or because the suspect disputes the confession was ever made. - 4. There are three types of false confessions, each having its own set of vulnerability factors. Voluntary false confessions occur when someone voluntarily confesses to a crime he or she did not commit without any elicitation from the police. Coerced- compliant false confessions are those in which the suspect confesses to a crime, even though the suspect is fully aware that he or she did not commit it. Coerced- internalized false confessions consist of individuals confessing to a crime they did not commit— and subsequently coming to the belief they committed the crime— usually after they are exposed to highly suggestible questions. - 5. Criminal profiling is sometimes used by the police in serial crime investigations. They use it for prioritizing suspects, developing new lines of inquiry, setting traps to flush out offenders, determining whether an offender’s actions should be taken seriously, giving advice on how to interrogate suspects, and developing courtroom strategies. Despite its use, criminal profiling is often criticized. One major criticism centres on the lack of a strong theoretical base underlying the approach. A second criticism relates to the fact that many profiles contain ambiguous information and this may cause problems when police officers are asked to interpret the profile. A third criticism is that professionally trained profilers may be no better than other individuals at constructing accurate profiles. 6. Another common form of profiling is geographic profiling, which is defined as any technique that uses crime scene locations to predict the most likely area where the offender resides. This form is often used to prioritize suspects, by rank ordering them based on the proximity of their residence to the predicted home location. CHAPTER 4: DECEPTION - The polygraph technique o Polygraph: A device for recording an individual’s autonomic nervous system responses o Polygraph disclosure tests: Polygraph tests that are used to uncover information about an offender’s past behaviour - Types of polygraph tests o Comparison Question Test: Type of polygraph test that includes irrelevant questions that are unrelated to the crime, relevant questions concerning the crime being investigated, and comparison questions concerning the person’s honesty and past history prior to the event being investigated o Concealed Information Test: Type of polygraph test designed to determine if the person knows details about a crime - Validity of Polygraph Techniques o Ground truth: As applied to polygraph research, the knowledge of whether the person is actually guilty or innocent o Countermeasures: As applied to polygraph research, techniques used to try to conceal guilt - Brain Based Deception Research o Event- related brain potentials: Brain activity measured by placing electrodes on the scalp and by recording electrical patterns related to presentation of a stimulus - Verbal and Non- verbal Behaviour Cues to Lying
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