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PSYC 3110 (49)
Chapter 3

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 3: 42-48 Social Determinants of Health  Villerme (1820) French physician who reported on the relationship of health and social conditions o Examined health of residents in different neighborhoods o Found relationship between the wealth of the neighborhood and the health of its residents o Poorer neighborhoods higher death rates, more illness, and disabilities  Social Darwinism- innate inferiority, not social injustice, causes ill health  1977- investigated social inequalities in health o Created the Black Report (named after Sir Douglas Black) o Unskilled manual workers (social class V) had poorer health status o Professionals (Social class I) had higher health status  Black report states four explanations on social position and health o An artifact- relationships between social position are an artifact of the method of measurement o Natural and social selection- social gradient in health is due to those who are already unhealthy falling downwards while those who are healthy rising upwards o Materialist and structuralism explanations- emphasize the role of economic and socio-structural factors o Cultural and behavioural differences- the individual as a unit of analysis emphasizing unthinking, reckless, or irresponsible behavior or incautious lifestyle as the moving determinant  Gap is not narrowing because o Nutrition is much worse among the poorest segment of population o Tobacco smuggling impacts negatively on the health of the poor o Cheap alcohol with special promotions and lowered prices o Activity is discourages with many supermarkets and hospitals located out of town requiring people to use public transportation or drive o Healthy schools initiative lacked proper targets and evaluation Social Inequality and Health Extent of social inequality  Steady increase in Western societies inequality  UK- number of individuals rose from 15% to 24% from 81’ to 94 o Approx. 12.4 million people  Indicators of inequality in UK: o Richest people have increased their share of total income  Richest 1% increased share of income from 6% to 13%
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