Textbook Notes (369,199)
Canada (162,458)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3110 (51)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

3 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Health Psychology- Chapter 9 -over the last 450 years tobacco has become a major contributor to the economy -government policy involves a conflict of interest Tobacco Industry Campaign of Disinformation -deliberately sought to create doubt in the minds of legislators and the public about the effects of smoking -SHS (second hand smoke) has been linked causally with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in major reports such as the 2004 US Surgeon General report -tobacco industry executives deployed the concept of “information” to shit full moral responsibility for the harms caused by tobacco products to consumers -discourses about smoking have a powerful influence on attributions of responsibility whether the consumer or the provider is ultimately to blame Tobacco Promotion and the Social and Economic Context of Smoking -tobacco advertising increases consumption by: -encouraging children/young adults to experiment and slip into regular use - encouraging smokers to increase consumption - reducing smokers’ motivation to quit - encouraging former smokers to resume -discouraging full and open discussion of the hazards of smoking as a result of media dependence on advertising revenues - muting opposition to controls on tobacco as a result of the dependence of organizations receiving sponsorship from tobacco companies -creating, through the ubiquity of advertising and sponsorship, an environment in which tobacco use is seen as familiar and acceptable and the warnings about its health impacts are undermined -most econometric studies have found that increased expenditure on tobacco advertising increases demand for cigarettes, while banning advertising leads to a reduction in tobacco consumption -abolition of tobacco advertising has not been as simple and straightforward as it might first appear -first: there is the argument that there is a lack of evidence to suggest that tobacco adversiting significantly influences smoking behavior -second: politics are included which tangles the situation -good for the economy -smokers who die before the average life expectancy are helping to reduce expenditure on an already expensive elderly population -by killing off smokers early, the tobacco industry is helping the economy Theories of Smoking -biopsychosocial model indicates three influences Biological Theory -Nicotine: main active ingredient in tobacco smoke, substance that if taken in large quantities can be toxic -in small amounts has a range of psychological effects: tranquilizer, weight loss, decreased irritability, increased alertness and improved cognitive functioning -over time the smoker develops a physical dependence on nicotine -Physical Dependence: state resulting from chronic drug or tobacco use that has produced tolerance and will, when usage is reduced or ceased, cause negative physical symptoms of withdrawal. -1997: smallest of 5 big US tobacco companies raised the nicotine content in cigarettes to increase their addictiveness -nicotine is absorbed through the skin and lining of the mouth and nose or by inhalation in the lungs -in cigarettes, nicotine reaches peak levels in the bloodstream and brain rapidly, within 7-10 seconds of inhalation -addictive because it activates brain circuits that regulate feelings of pleasure, the “reward pathway” of the brain -key chemical involved is the neurotransmitter, Dopamine that nicotine increases -effects of nicotine disappear in a few minutes, causing the smoker to repeat the dose of nicotine to maintain the drug’s pleasurable effects and prevent withdrawal symptoms -an enzyme called MAO shows a marked decrease during smoking: MAO is responsible for breaking down dopamine -smokers may be increasing central dopamine levels by reducing MAO inhibitor activity, reinforcing smoking by keeping high satisfaction levels through repeated tobacco use. -twin studies produced evidence of a genetic link to smoking -genetic factors increased the likelihood of becoming a regular smoker -genetic factors account for 50% of the risk of smoking and envi
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.