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Canada (162,458)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3110 (51)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3110
Professor
Kieran O' Doherty

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Health Psychology- Chapter 9 -over the last 450 years tobacco has become a major contributor to the economy -government policy involves a conflict of interest Tobacco Industry Campaign of Disinformation -deliberately sought to create doubt in the minds of legislators and the public about the effects of smoking -SHS (second hand smoke) has been linked causally with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in major reports such as the 2004 US Surgeon General report -tobacco industry executives deployed the concept of “information” to shit full moral responsibility for the harms caused by tobacco products to consumers -discourses about smoking have a powerful influence on attributions of responsibility whether the consumer or the provider is ultimately to blame Tobacco Promotion and the Social and Economic Context of Smoking -tobacco advertising increases consumption by: -encouraging children/young adults to experiment and slip into regular use - encouraging smokers to increase consumption - reducing smokers’ motivation to quit - encouraging former smokers to resume -discouraging full and open discussion of the hazards of smoking as a result of media dependence on advertising revenues - muting opposition to controls on tobacco as a result of the dependence of organizations receiving sponsorship from tobacco companies -creating, through the ubiquity of advertising and sponsorship, an environment in which tobacco use is seen as familiar and acceptable and the warnings about its health impacts are undermined -most econometric studies have found that increased expenditure on tobacco advertising increases demand for cigarettes, while banning advertising leads to a reduction in tobacco consumption -abolition of tobacco advertising has not been as simple and straightforward as it might first appear -first: there is the argument that there is a lack of evidence to suggest that tobacco adversiting significantly influences smoking behavior -second: politics are included which tangles the situation -good for the economy -smokers who die before the average life expectancy are helping to reduce expenditure on an already expensive elderly population -by killing off smokers early, the tobacco industry is helping the economy Theories of Smoking -biopsychosocial model indicates three influences Biological Theory -Nicotine: main active ingredient in tobacco smoke, substance that if taken in large quantities can be toxic -in small amounts has a range of psychological effects: tranquilizer, weight loss, decreased irritability, increased alertness and improved cognitive functioning -over time the smoker develops a physical dependence on nicotine -Physical Dependence: state resulting from chronic drug or tobacco use that has produced tolerance and will, when usage is reduced or ceased, cause negative physical symptoms of withdrawal. -1997: smallest of 5 big US tobacco companies raised the nicotine content in cigarettes to increase their addictiveness -nicotine is absorbed through the skin and lining of the mouth and nose or by inhalation in the lungs -in cigarettes, nicotine reaches peak levels in the bloodstream and brain rapidly, within 7-10 seconds of inhalation -addictive because it activates brain circuits that regulate feelings of pleasure, the “reward pathway” of the brain -key chemical involved is the neurotransmitter, Dopamine that nicotine increases -effects of nicotine disappear in a few minutes, causing the smoker to repeat the dose of nicotine to maintain the drug’s pleasurable effects and prevent withdrawal symptoms -an enzyme called MAO shows a marked decrease during smoking: MAO is responsible for breaking down dopamine -smokers may be increasing central dopamine levels by reducing MAO inhibitor activity, reinforcing smoking by keeping high satisfaction levels through repeated tobacco use. -twin studies produced evidence of a genetic link to smoking -genetic factors increased the likelihood of becoming a regular smoker -genetic factors account for 50% of the risk of smoking and envi
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