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Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3310 (21)
Chapter 4

Textbook Notes Chapter 4

3 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 3310
Jennifer Dobson

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1 CHAPTER 4 - INTERVENTIONS - An intervention may be defined as a strategy (or procedure) that is intended to influence the behavior of people for the purpose of improving their functioning with respect to some social or practical problem. - Personal interventions are those that people carry out in the course of their daily lives, that is, when they use their knowledge of social psychology to improve their own circumstances or those of people around them. - Programmatic interventions, which commonly are referred to simply as programs.Aprogram is “an organized collection of activities designed to reach certain objectives” - Trial interventions are those that are implemented to determine whether the interventions, as designed, in fact have the intended positive consequences. These are also known as program efficacy studies - There are two basic kinds of trial interventions. One is when researchers design a study to test out a possible intervention strategy. - The second kind of trial intervention is when an organization conducts a pilot program to determine its effectiveness before implementing it on a more permanent basis or before implementing it on a wider scale. - The process of intervention design and implementation follows four overarching steps that reflect the general problem-solving approach adopted by many areas of applied psychology and are applicable whether the recipient of the intervention is one individual or many individuals. These steps: o Step 1: Identifying a problem. Programs are initiated to address social problems or practical problems. The first step in program design is to identify the existence and severity of a problem.  Aproblem usually is identified and defined by stakeholders. Stakeholders are individuals or groups who have a vested interest in the possible development of a program in that they may be affected by it in some way o Step 2:Arriving at a solution.Ascertaining the existence of a problem or need is one thing; determining how best to address it is quite another. When identifying causal factors one should distinguish between precipitating factors (i.e. those that triggered the problem) and perpetuating factors (those that sustain the problem)  For clarity of conceptualization and communication, solutions to problems should be expressed as intervention hypotheses Intervention hypotheses are “if–then” statements that summarize the intervention and the expected outcomes. o Step 3: Setting goals and designing the intervention. Once the need and the proposed solution have been determined, it is necessary to develop the program activities, which refer to the specific components and procedures of the program  Knowledge of goals and objective serves to guide the selection of program activities. Goals refer to the ultimate or long-term outcomes that one hopes to accomplish through and intervention. Objectives refer to short-term outcomes and intermediate term 2 changes that occur as a result of the intervention and are required for the attainment of the program goals. o Step 4: Implementing the intervention.As the term implies, implementation refers to the actual process of enacting the intervention activities, that is, of delivering them to the recipients of the intervention - Aprogram logic model is an explanation or a blueprint of how the program activities lead to the attainment of the program objectives and, in turn, how the objectives logically and operationally contribute to the eventual achievement of the program goal(s) - Some evaluators have begun to employ the notion of a theory of change model instead of program logic to underscore the need to make explic
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