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PSYC 3390 (102)
Chapter 7

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 7

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PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Chapter 7 12/3/2012 10:57:00 AM - What are Mood Disorders? - Mania is characterized by intense and unrealistic feelings of excitement and euphoria - Depression involves feelings of extraordinary sadness and dejection - In unipolar disorders, one will only experience depressive episodes - We differentiate between mood disorders in terms of severity and duration - A major depressive episode involves the person being markedly depressed for most of every day and for most days for at least two weeks - A manic episode shows marked elevation, euphoria or expansiveness in mood, interrupted by occasional outbursts of intense irritability or even violence, persisting for atleast a week - Lifetime prevalence of unipolar major depression is 12 percent and about 17 percent in the USA, higher for women then men Unipolar Mood Disorders - The grieving process tends to be more difficult for men than women - Normal responses to loss of a loved one: numbing and disbelief that lasts for hours-week, yearning and searching for weeks or months, disorganization and despair and reorganization - Usually major depressive disorder is not to be diagnosed for the first two months of a loss - Symptoms of postpartum blues are emotional lability, crying easily, irritability intermixed with happy feelings which occur in 50 to 70% of women within 10 days of the birth of their child - Dysthymic disorder is when a person has a persistently depressed mood for most of the day, most days than not for atleast two years with mild to moderate intensity - 3 to 6% of Canadian adults develop this at some point in their lives— average length is 5 years but can persist for 20 or more, chronic stress increases severity of symptoms and nearly half relapse after 2 years, it begins in teen years - major depressive disorder require that the person exhibit more symptoms than are required for dysthymia and that the symptoms be more persistent—a person must be in a major depressive episode - specifiers are different patterns of symptoms or features in DSM-IV-TR - major depressive episode with melancholic features is applied when, in addition to meeting the criteria for major depression a partient either has lost interest or pleasure in almost all activities or does not react to usually pleasurable stimuli - psychotic symptoms characterized by loss of contact with reality and delusions or hallucinations may accompany other symptoms of major depression - atypical features include symptoms characterized by mood reactivity and include significant weight gain or increase in activity, hypersomnia, leaden paralysis and being acutely sensitive to interpersonal rejection - 77% of dysthymic patients suffer from double depression at some time Causal Factors in Unipolar Mood Disorders - the serotonin-transporter gene is involved in the transmission and reuptake of serotonin which is a key neurotransmitter involved in depression—there are short and long alleles which might predispose animals to depression - norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin - the monoamine hypothesis states that depression is sometimes due to an absolute or relative depletion of one or all the aforementioned neurotransmitters at important recptor sites in the brain - REM period does not usually begin in sleep until the end of the first sleep cycle, about 75 to 80 minutes into sleep - Circadian rhythms are controlled by oscillators that act as internal clocks—in depressed people the size or magnititude of the circadian rhythms could be blunted or desynchronized or uncoupled Bipolar Disorders - Cyclothymic disorder is defined as a less serious version of major bipolar disorder, minus certain extreme symptoms and psychotic features, such as delusions, and minus the marked impairment caused by full blown manic or major depressive episodes - Bipolar 1 disorder includes a ma
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