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Chapter 10

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 10

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Chapter 10 12/4/2012 3:35:00 PM - Behavioural medicine is an interdisciplinary field that focuses on the role that psychological factos play in the occurrence, maintenance and prevention of medical problems - Health psychology is a psychological subspecialty within behavioural medicine—it contributes to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of psychological components of medical problems - Issues include: psychological factors that may predispose an individual to physical illness like critical life events, particular types of behaviour and personality - The ways where stress can be reduced or buffered by personal resources by means of coping styles, social supports and certain personality traits - The biological mechnisms by which human physiology is altered by stressors, particularly those arising from maladaptive behaviour and the effects of stress on the immune, endocrine, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems - The processes involved in the choices people make with respect to hazardous lifestyles, healthcare decisions, and adherence to preventive regimens - The factors that determine compliance with sound medical advice including the nature of the relationship between the medical practitioner and the patient, cultural factors, and personal factors - Effectiveness of psychological measures, like health education and behaviour modification, in altering unheathful lifestyles and in directl reducing illness at both individual and community levels - Psychophysiological disorders include those in which psychological factors play a role Psychological Factors in Health and Disease - The stress response begins in the hypothalamus which stimulates the sympathetic nervous system which causes the inner portion of the adrenal glands to secerete adrenaline and noradrenaline causing an increase in heart rate - The hypothalamus also releases a hormone called corticotropin-releasing hormone which stimulates the pituitary gland which seceretes adreonocorticotrophic hormone which induces the adrenal cortex to produce the stress hormones called glucocorticoids which produce cortisol - Cortisol prepares the body for fight or glight and inhibits the innate and inhibits the innate immune response, however, if the cortisol response is not shut off, cortisol can damage brain cells especially in the hypocampus - If the stressor remains, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stays active and cortisol release continues - The biological cost of adapting to stress is called the allostatic load; when we are relaxed and not experiencing stress, our allostatic load is low and when we are stressed and pressured it is high - Any stress may tend to aggravate and maintain certain disorders, such as migraine headaches, asthma and rheumatoid arthritis - A diagnosis of PTSD was correlated with a wide range of physical illnesses including cancer, heart disease, pain, gastrointestinal problems and respiratory illness - Immune system protects the body against viruses and bacteria - The front line of defence in the immune system is the white blood cells; these leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then stored in various places throughout the body; such as the spleen and the lymph nodes - The B-cells mature in the bone marrow and produce specific antibodies that are designed to respond to specific antigens - Antigens are foreign bodies such as viruses and bacteria; as well as internal invaders such as tumours and cancer cells - The t-cell matures in the thymus which is an important endocrine gland - When the immune system is stimulated; b cells and t cells become activated and multiply rapidly, mounting various forms of counterattack - Cytokines are chemical messengers that are of crucial impo
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