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University of Guelph
PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Chapter 18- Contemporary and Legal Issues in Abnormal Psychology Perspectives on Prevention - Prevention efforts are classified into three categories 1) Universal Intervention: Aimed at influencing the general population 2) Selective Interventions: Aimed at a specific subgroup deemed to be at risk 3) Indicated Interventions: Aimed at high risk individuals, having minimal but detectable symptoms but do not meet the criteria for a clinical diagnosis Universal Interventions - Broad including: biological, psychosocial and sociocultural effort (any effort aimed at improving human condition - Performs two key tasks 1) Altering conditions causing/contributing to mental disorder 2) Establishing conditions that foster positive mental health - Epidemiological Studies: help investigators obtain information on incidence and distribution of disorders, suggest preventative measures  Biological Strategies - Promoting adaptive lifestyles: improving diet, exercise - Physical illness can produce psychological stress  Psychosocial Strategies - People need opportunities to lean physical, intellectual and social competencies - Requirements for psychosocial health 1) Develop skills for; effective problem solving, expressing emotions constructively, satisfying relationships 2) Acquire a frame of reference upon which to build identity 3) Prepared for type of problems to be encountered across a lifetime  Sociocultural Strategies - Need supportive community for individual development - Make the community as safe and attractive for individuals; public education, social welfare, economic planning, appropriate healthcare Selective Interventions - Difficult to mobilize, plan and carryout - Eg. North American Attempt to address drug abuse used 3 different strategies: 1) Interdicting and reducing the supply of drugs: little impact, alcohol and tobacco still available 2) Providing treatment services for those with drug problems: least effective difficult to overcome, relapse is common 3) Encouraging prevention: more effective, 2 main approaches 1) universal programs all youth receive the same intervention, 2) Targeted programs focus on high risk youth - Early alchohol use is a predictor of later alcohol abuse Education Programs - School Based: children are made aware of the dangers of drug/alcohol abuse - Stay it Straight: taught kids danger of drug abuse and how to be assertive enough to resist Results: lower rates of suspensions for drug/alcohol use than those who weren’t in the program - MADD: Safety curriculum for elementary students Parent Education and Family-Based Intervention Programs - Parents own drinking/attitudes encourages alcohol abuse among teens - Parental monitoring and involvement reduces alcohol abuse - Alcohol related cognitions directly related to parental norms - Need to increase parents awareness, skill in dealing with drug related issues, understanding and responding empathetically to youngsters Peer Group Influence Programs - Peers have a powerful influence (more so than parents and teachers) - Aim to teach social skills and assertiveness Programs to Increase Self Esteem - Enable them to fend for themselves, not fall into dependant negative relationships with stronger more dominant peers - Social Skills training; modelling appropriate behaviours - Cognitive behavioural intervention Techniques; improve problem solving, improve competency in basic life skills Mass Media and Modeling Programs - Prohibition of exploitation of minors in the media is now in place Combined Prevention Programs - Combining two or more intervention strategies: targeted prevention can be used in conjunction with universal prevention - DARE: teaching coping skills to youth and the dangers of drugs/alcohol -Evaluations of program proved limited success Indicated Interventions - Early detection and prompt treatment of maladaptive behaviour in at risk person - Early detection in those who develop psychosis = better outcome The Mental Hospital as a Therapeutic Community - Milieu Therapy: the total treatment and the environment are crucial aspects of therapy, 3 general principles 1) Staff expectations
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