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Chapter 2

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 2.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Chapter 2 10/11/2012 8:41:00 AM Historical Views of Abnormal Behaviour - the early shanan would treat mental disorders by trephining—the opening, called a trephine, permitted the evil spirit to leave the body - Greek doctor Hippocrates is referred to as the father of modern medicine—he denied that deities and demons intervened in the development of illnesses and insisted that mental disorders had natural causes and appropriate treatments - Disorders are due to brain pathology - Classified all disorders into: mania, melancholia and phrenitis (brain fever) and relied on clinical observation - Hippocrates and Galen described the four elements of the natural world to be earth, air, fire and water, which have attributes of dryness, cold, heat and moistness, these combined to make the essential elements of the body—blood (sanguis), phlegm, bile (choler) and black bile (melancholer) and these fluids combine differently in different people to make a persons temperament - Plato viewed psychological phenomena as responses of the whole organism, reflecting internal states and natural appetites - Aristotle viewed that thinking would eliminate pain and help to attain pleasure and believed that very hot bile generated amorous desires, verbal fluency and suicidal impulses - Mass madness is the widespread occurrence of group behavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteria—whole groups of people were affected simultaneously - Tarantism is a disorder that included an uncontrollable impulse to dance that was attributed to the bit of the southern tarantula –this dancing mania spread to Germany and the rest of Europe and was know as the saint vitus dance - Lycanthropy was a condition in which people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves and imitated their behavior - Mass madness occurred way into the 17 thcentury but reached its peak th th during the 14 and 15 centurys—a period noted for its oppression, famine and diseases and Black Death which killed 50% of Europe - In some monasteries and shrines, exorcisms were performed by the gentle laying on of hands - There are 350 exorcist priests in Italy Toward Humanitarian Approaches - Paracelsus was an early critic of superstitious beliefs about possession—insisted dancing mania was not a possession but a form of disease th - From the 16 century on, special institutions called asylums (sanctuaries or other places of refuse for the care of the mentally ill) grew in number - The first asylum eastablished in Europe was probably in spain in 1409, the Valencia mental hospital - In 1547, the monastery of st mary of Bethlehem in London was officially made into an asylum by henry viii—it was later called bedlam and became known for its horrible conditions and practices - San Hipolito in Mexico in 1566 was the first asylum in north America and the first in Canada was the hotel dieu of quebec which was founded in 1639—this housed people with a variety of problems, including psychiatric disorders, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities and the people who were poor and destitute - The initial philosophy of treatment involved the belief that patients needed to
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