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Chapter 10

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PSYC 3800
Jen Lasenby- Lessard

CHAPTER 10: SOCIAL COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING AND MOTIVATION SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY A Self-Directed Life: Albert Bandura Child of Eastern European immigrant parents, settled in Alberta   Parents valued education but never went to school, father taught himself 3 languages, modelled great self-regulated learning  Grew up with self-directed learning Beyond Behaviourism  Early social learning theory emphasized learning through observation and modelling o He himself saw shortcomings of not including culture, norms etc.  Then developed tosocial cognitive theoryadds concern with cognitive factors like beliefs, self-perceptions and expectations) o Changed name of theory to this because other theories called social learning theories at the time, and his was a broader theory that included cognitive factors o Emphasis on role of others serving as models and impact of cognitive factors  Explanation of motivation Triarchic Reciprocal Causality  Triarchic reciprocal causality:explained by social cognitive theory, explanation of behaviour that emphasizes mutual effects of individual and environment on each other  Three influences: o Personal factors - beliefs, expectations, attitudes o Environmental factors - physical/social environment, other people, models o Behavioural factors - actions, choices of individual o All influences also influence each other Self-Efficacy and Agency  Predictions of outcomes of behaviour are important for learning, affect goals, effort, persistence and resilience  Predictions affected by self efficacy (our beliefs about our personal competence and effectiveness in particular area)  Human agency: exercising influence over life events, ability to make intentional choices and action plans Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem  Self-efficacy is future oriented, focus on your ability to accomplish tasks, strong predictor of behaviour, context specific  Self-concept is a global construct that includes self-efficacy, use self and others for evaluation Sources of Self-Efficacy  4 sources of self-efficacy expectations: o Mastery experiences - own direct experiences, strongest source o Physiological and emotional arousal - depends on how you interpret arousal o Vicarious experiences - someone else models accomplishment o Social persuasion - performance feedback, doesn't work on its own, depends on source of persuasion Modelling: Learning From Others  Learning from others depends on developmental level of observer (older children can focus better, learn more), status of model (will model more from someone influential to them), and depends on if models seem like ourselves (can relate to them better) APPLYING SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY Observational Learning in Teaching  Five outcomes of observational learning: o Directing Attention  Learn about actions and objects involved in actions o Fine-Tuning Already-Learning Behaviours  Observe others action so we know what action to use in same situation o Strengthening or Weakening Inhibitions  Observe others rule breaking will enhance learning (e.g. if no consequence, will learn they can get away with it) o Teaching New Behaviours  Teachers model a lot of behaviour (speaking, attitudes), modelling especially works when model is peer of same age, can teach each-other o Arousing Emotion  Develop emotional reactions to things they have not experienced but have seen or heard of Self-Efficacy in Learning and Teaching  Higher self-efficacy leads to more effort and persistence, set higher goals  Evidence that higher self-efficacy supports motivation, even if it is a overestimation  If ability is underestimated then might give up easily and not try hard, if overestimated, may not do task carefully  Self-efficacy is related to achievement, but even students with same ability in math, if they had higher self-efficacy, they did better Teachers Sense of Efficacy  The teachers belief that they can reach even difficult students and help them learn is correlated with student achievement o Work harder and are more invested in work o Higher in school with high expectations of students and teachers receive support POINT/COUNTERPOINT Point: higher efficacy is better than lower efficacy  o Teachers are more enthusiastic, open to ideas to meet needs of students, more active in classrooms and responsive to misbehaviour  Counterpoint: there are problems with high efficacy o Excessive optimism interferes with accurate judgement of abilities, unrealistic, think they know how to do things so reluctant to change o Believe that doubt motivates change SELF-REGULATED LEARNING  Must be able to learn on your own  Self-regulation:process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviours, and emotions in order to reach goals  Effective self-regulated learners have combination of academic skills and self-control and will to learn What Influences Self-Regulation?  Three factors: o Knowledge  Need knowledge about self, subject, task and learning strategies  Expert students know self and how they learn best, know about subject, and different approaches need to learn different content o Motivation  Motivated to learn, find tasks interesting and value learning  Obtain benefit from it even if subject isn't motivated o Volition  Willpower, planning for and protecting opportunities to reach goals, protect self from distract Models of Self-Regulated Learning and Agency  Theoretical models of self-regulated learning describe how learners set goals, mobilize efforts/resources to reach those goals  Cycle of Self-Regulated
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