Chapter 12 (Pages 440441)
Bullying and Cyberbullying
Bullying and Teasing
• Bullying involves repeated attempts to harm a victim and an imbalance of power between
the bully and the victim
• a rule of thumb is that teasing someone who is less powerful or less popular or using any
racial, ethnic, or religious slur should not be tolerated
• aggressive children whose teachers taught them conflict management strategies were
moved away from a life path of aggression and violence
o but when teachers are silent, students may believe the insults are true
• anything you do to develop class community will be a step toward dealing with bullying
• Cynthia Hudley – BrainPower program to reduce physical aggression in elementary
o Goal = to teach aggressive students to start from a presumption of accidental
causes ▯ When a social encounter with a peer results in a negative outcome, the
child will begin with the assumption that the outcome was due to accidental
causes rather than intentional hostility from peers
o Teaches accurate reading of social cues
o Assertive not aggressive
• Develop an explicit policy for acceptable inschool use of the internet and include it in
the school handbook
• Take concerns seriously
• Make parents aware of internet parental controls
• Keep computers in a private room
Chapter 4 – Learning Differences and Learning Needs
Language and Labelling
• Exceptional students – students who have high abilities in particular areas or disabilities
that impact learning and may require special education or other services.
• Students may have developmental delays,
• learning disabilities, communication disorders, emotional or behavioural disorders,
physical disabilities, autism, traumatic brain injury, impaired hearing, impaired vision, or
advanced abilities and talents
o the labels can become selffulfilling prophecies.
o labels are mistaken for explanations
o A label does not tell a teacher which methods to use with individual students.
• some educators argue that applying a label protects the child
• labels both stigmatize and help students
Disabilities and Handicaps
• Disability The inability to do something specific, such as walk or hear.
• Handicap A disadvantage in a particular situation, sometimes caused by a disability.
o For example, being blind (a visual disability) is a handicap if you want to drive a
car. • Handicap came from the phrase “capinhand,” used to describe people with disabilities
who once were forced to beg just to survive t▯ herefore is a demeaning term
• “peoplefirst” language—to refer to “students with developmental disabilities” or
“students placed at risk.”
• avoid the language of pity
What Does Intelligence Mean?
• Intelligence Ability or abilities to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and
adapting to the world.
o (1) the capacity to learn; (2) the total knowledge a person has acquired; and (3)
the ability to adapt successfully to new situations and to the environment in
Intelligence: One Ability or Many?
• some believe intelligence is a basic ability that affects performance on all cognitively
• General intelligence (g) A general factor in cognitive ability that is related in varying
degrees to performance on all mental tests.
o Recent research = g is related to working memory
o the notion of g does not have much explanatory power
• Cattel & Horn:
o Fluid intelligence Mental efficiency that is culturefree and nonverbal and is
grounded in brain development; reasoning ability
Increases until late adolescence (22) because it is grounded in brain
Sensitive to injuries and diseases
o Crystallized intelligence Ability to apply culturally approved problemsolving
Can increase throughout lifespan (includes the learned skills and
o By investing fluid intelligence in solving problems, we develop our crystallized
• Intelligence has many facets and is a hierarchy of abilities ▯ general ability positioned at
the top and more specific abilities appearing at lower levels of the hierarchy
o General ability may be related to maturation and functioning of the frontal lobe
of the brain
• Gardner’s Theory of multiple intelligences a person’s eight separate abilities: linguistic,
musical, spatial, logical mathematical, bodilykinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal,
What Are These Intelligences?
• 8 Intelligences:
o linguistic (verbal) o musical
o bodilykinesthetic (movement)
o interpersonal (understanding others)
o intrapersonal (understanding self)
o naturalist (observing and understanding natural and humanmade patterns and
• multiple intelligences because brain damage often interferes with functioning on one
area, but does not affect functioning in others
o people may excel in one intelligence, while no remarkable abilities in the others
• Gardner – intelligence has a biological base
Evaluations of Multiple Intelligences Theory
• has not received wide acceptance in the scientific community
• there may be connections among the intelligences
• some critics believe that some of the intelligences are actually just talents or personality
• not very helpful – almost certainly incorrect
• Gardner does not deny the existence of a general ability, but does question how useful g
is as an explanation for human achievements.
Multiple Intelligences Go to School
• Some teachers use a simplistic version of MI include every “intelligence” in every
lesson, no matter how inappropriate
• Better = focusing on six entry points when designing a curriculum: narrative, logical
quantitative, aesthetic, experiential, interpersonal, and existential/foundational
• Many educators believe that multiple intelligences practices increase achievement for all
students and improve both student discipline and parent participation
Intelligence as a Process
• Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence A threepart description of the mental
abilities that lead to more or less intelligent behaviour.
o 3 intelligence parts:
Analytic intelligence thinking processes
Creative intelligence coping with new experiences
• Insight – the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and
fund new solutions to problems
• Automaticity – the ability to become efficient and automatic in
thinking and problem solving
o the ability to quickly make the new solutions part of
your cognitive tool kit
Practical intelligence adapting to context
• the importance of choosing an environment in which you can
succeed, adapting to that environment, and reshaping it if
• Career choice or social skills • Sternberg – successful intelligence ▯intelligence is more than what is tested by mental
abilities measures, it’s about life success in your cultural context
• adults with higher practical and analytical intelligence coped better both mentally and
physically with the stresses caused by rapid changes in that part of the world
• psychologists agree that the intelligence recorded in standard tests is related to learning in
• Binet having an objective measure of learning ability could protect students from poor
families who might be forced to leave school because they were the victims of
discrimination and assumed to be slow learners.
• Binet: Mental age a score based on average abilities for that age group
• StanfordBinet test: Intelligence quotient (IQ) Score comparing mental and
o Intelligence quotient = Mental age/Chronological age X 100
• mental age = problematic because IQ scores calculated on the basis of mental age do not
have the same meaning as children get older
o SO ▯deviation IQ a number that tells exactly how much above or below the
average a person scored on the test, compared with others in the same age group.
What Does an IQ Score Mean?
• The average score is 100
Group vs. Individual IQ Tests
• StandfordBinet test is an individual test
• a group test is much less likely to yield an accurate picture of any one person’s abilities.
The Flynn Effect: Are We Getting Smarter?
• IQ scores have been rising in the last 20 years ▯in a generation, the average score goes up
about 18 points on standardized IQ tests
• Flynn effect A steady rise in IQ test scores because of better health, smaller families,
increased complexity in the environment, and more and better schooling.
o better nutrition and medical care for children and parents
o increasing complexity in the environment that stimulates thinking
o the preponderance of smaller families who give more attention to their children
o increased literacy of parents
o more and better schooling
o better preparation for taking tests.
• Norms used to determine scores must be continually revised (to keep average score of
100, tests have to be made harder)
• This increasing difficulty has implications for any program that uses IQ scores as part of
the entrance requirements
o some “average” students of the previous generation now might be identified as
having intellectual disabilities because the test questions are harder
Intelligence and Achievement • higher on IQ tests is related to school achievement ▯they stay in school longer
Sex Differences in Intelligence
• no differences in general intelligence on the standard measures between boys and girls
• The scores of males tend to be more variable in general, so there are more males than
females with very high and very low scores on tests
• more boys diagnosed with learning disabilities, attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD), and autism
• males excel on certain visuospatialability measures
• females excel in verbal abilities – writing and languageusage items
• males excel in quantitative abilities
• Girls in general tend to get higher grades than boys in mathematics classes
• males on average score better on tests that require mental rotation of a figure in space
• discrimination plays a role as well
Heredity or Environment?
• differences in intelligence are due to both heredity and environment
o genes establish a range of possible reactions to the range of possible experiences
that the environment can provide
• cognitive skills can always be improved
Learning and Thinking Styles
• Cognitivecentred styles assess ways people process information, for example by being
reflective or impulsive in responding
• Personalitycentred styles assess more stable personality traits such as being extroverted
versus introverted or relying on thinking versus feeling
• Activitycentred styles assess a combination of cognition and personality that affects
how people approach activities, so these styles may be of special interest to teachers.
o Surface processing of information – focus on memorizing the learning materials,
not understanding them
Tend to be motivated by rewards, grades, external standards
o Deep processing of information see the learning activities as a means for
understanding some underlying concepts or meanings
Learn for the sake of learning
Learning Styles and Preferences
• Learning style – the way a person approaches learning and studying
Cautions about Learning Styles
• Learning preferences – Preferred ways of studying and learning
o Ie. such as using pictures instead of text, working with other people versus alone,
learning in structured or in unstructured situations
• Not all children will know their best learning style
The Value of Considering Learning Styles
• by helping students think about how they learn, you can develop thoughtful self
monitoring and selfawareness. • looking at individual students’ approaches to learning might help you appreciate, accept,
and accommodate student differences
Students who are Gifted and Talented
• gifted students are being poorly served in public schools
Who Are These Students?
• Gifts and talents are often located in specific domains
• The work of gifted students is original, extremely advanced for their age, and potentially
of lasting importance
• These children were larger, stronger, and healthier than the norm
• More emotionally stable, betteradjusted
What is the Origin of These Gifts?
• Nature and nurture
• Family devotion to the development of a child’s gifts
• Parents’ investments in their children come after the children show early highlevel
• Brain organization
What Problems Do Gifted Children Face?
• gifted adolescents, especially girls, are more likely to be depressed and to report social
and emotional problems
• Children who are gifted may also be impatient with friends, parents, and even teachers
who do not share their interests or abilities
• May appear to be showoffs
• May seem stubborn and uncooperative because they are goaldriven and focused
• Adjustment problems seem to be greatest for children with the greatest academic ability
Identifying and Teaching Students Who Are Gifted
• Girls are more likely to hide their abilities
Recognizing Students’ Special Abilities
• May prefer to work alone, have a keep sense of justice and fairness, be energetic and
intense, and form strong commitments and struggle with perfectionism
• Group achievement and intelligence tests tend to underestimate the IQs of very bright
• Best way to identify gifted students is with a case study – considering all scores, grades,
examples of work, ratings from teachers and selfratings
• Must remember that some gifted children may have great disadvantages in other types of
tests ▯therefore cannot rule those out who struggle sometime.
Teaching Gifted Students
• Some believe gifted students should be accelerated – moved quickly through grades or
o Or enriched – given additional and more thoughtprovoking work, but keeping
them with their age group • curriculum compacting involves assessing students’ knowledge of the material in an
instructional unit, then teaching only for those goals not yet reached
• acceleration – these students often do well and even better than other students who
progressed at a normal pace
o Social and emotional adjustment does not appear to be impaired
o Students who are gifted tend to prefer the company of older playmates ▯may be
bored with children of their own age.
• An alternative to skipping grades is to accelerate students in one or two particular
subjects but keep them with peers for most classes
• Should encourage abstract thinking, creativity, and independence
• Cooperative learning in mixedability groups is not effective
• Provide challenge, but also support
• most provinces and territories have adopted inclusive policies that place students with
disabilities in their neighbour hood schools within general education classrooms
Students With Learning Disabilities
• Learning disability Problem with acquisition and use of language; may show up as
difficulty with reading, writing, reasoning, or math.
• there are both physiological and environmental bases for learning disabilities
• If parents have a learning disability, their children have a 30 to 50 percent chance of
having a learning disability too
• Learning disabilities may also involve difficulties with organizational skills, social
perception, social interaction and perspective taking.
• Learning disabilities are life long – the way they are expressed may vary overtime
• Learning disabilities are due to genetic and/or neurobiological factors or injury that alters
brain functioning in a manner which affects one or more processes related to learning.
• specific difficulties in one or more academic areas
• poor coordination
• problems paying attention
• hyperactivity and impulsivity
• problems organizing and interpreting visual and auditory information
• disorders of thinking, memory, speech, and hearing
• difficulties making and keeping friends
• * not all will have these problems, and few will have all of them
• Most common problem for students with learning disabilities is reading
• Second most common is math (computation and problem solving)
• Students with learning disabilities often lack effective ways of approaching academic
Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities
• Early diagnosis is important
• Important to help students understand their disability
• Learned helplessness – The expectation, based on previous experiences involving lack of
control, that all of one’s efforts will lead to failure. • students with learning disabilities are at risk for social withdrawal and even depression
• Strategies for supporting students with learning disabilities:
o Preschool years
Keep verbal instructions short and simple.
Match the level of content carefully to the child’s developmental level.
Give multiple examples to clarify meaning.
Allow more practice than usual, especially when material is new.
o Elementary school years
Keep verbal instructions short and simple; have students repeat
directions back to you to be sure they understand.
Use mnemonics (memory strategies) in instruction to teach students how
Repeat main points several times.
Provide additional time for learning and practice—reteach when
o Secondary school and transition years
Directly teach selfmonitoring strategies, such as cueing students to ask,
“Was I paying attention?”
Connect new material to knowledge students already have.
Teach students to use external memory strategies and devices (tape
recording, note taking, creating todo lists, etc.).
• *emphasizing study skills and methods for processing information in a given subject
• Maureen Lovett taught students with severe reading disabilities to use the four different
word identification strategies:
o (1) word identification by analogy,
o (2) seeking the part of the word that you know
o (3) attempting different vowel pronunciations, and
o (4) “peeling off” prefixes and suffixes in a multisyllabic word
Reaching Every Student: HigherOrder Comprehension and Severe Learning Disabilities.
• Joanna Williams – Theme Identification Program to help students with learning
disabilities to understand/use themes in literature
o Discussion using the Theme Scheme
o Identification of the theme
o Application of theme
o Multimodal activity – role play
Students With Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders
• Hyperactivity Behaviour disorder marked by atypical, excessive restlessness and
o It is 2 kinds of problems that may, or may not occur together: attention disorders
and impulsivehyperactivity problems
Characteristics of Students With Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders.
• Struggle maintaining and directing attention • Attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) disruptive behaviour disorders marked
by overactivity, excessive difficulty sustaining attention, or impulsiveness.
• Problems with inattention
• Problems with impulse control
• Hyperactivity – fidgets, restless, climbs, talks excessively
• More physically active
• Difficulty responding appropriately and working toward goals
• 3 or 4 x more boys than girls are hyper