PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-5: Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, Mental Deficiency Act 1913, Intellectual Disability

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Chapter 1
1. Terms used idiot, imbecile, moron, feeble-minded, mental defective/deficiency
Replaced by cognitive and intellectual disabilities
Mental Retardation used in Disability Education Act of 2004
Rosa’s law (Obama)= mental retardation→ intellectual disability
2. St. Nicholas Thaumaturgos- Bishop of Myra- protector and saint of individuals with
CIDs: Prototype of Santa Claus
3. Ancient Egyptians- valued their children
4. Ancient Egypt tolerant of CID individuals :Ancient Rome and Greece supported
infanticide- killing of infants with CID
5. Sparta newborn babies would be brought before a board of elders to determine their
physical capability and if the child had a disability then the child would be thrown into
river Eurotes.
6. In Rome the child was the parent’s property fathers decided whether he wants the child.
7. Boys were considered men at age 16 and men at 25 were considered middle aged
8. Most notable physician during this period was Avicenna
Proposed treatements of CIDs (meningitis and hydrocephalus)
9. Reanissance (1300s) and Reformation (1500s)
10. Paracelsus, a Swiss physician- “Many are those who are ill who are not thought to be
mentally sick. For as fools (simpletons, feeble-minded) are of many kinds, so also are
there many kinds of crazy people not of one sort nor in one way, but in but in many ways
of many sorts, in many patterns and forms” and “the ‘feeble-minded’ behaved in the
‘ways of a healthy animal, but the psychopathic in the manner of an irrational animal’”
11. Felix Platter, also a Swiss physician- talked abut individuals with CIDs are docile, do not
learn, simple language but take delight in their actions! Whereas normal people would
still say and do foolish things.
12. Martin Luther- very negative about CID- called individuals with CIDS massa carnis (no
soul)
13. 17th and 18th century- Age of reason and enlightenment in Europe but treatement of
individuals with CID was inhumane
14. During the 17th century there were over 100,000 beggars in paris and individuals with
CIDs were kept in prison with a death rate exceeding 75-80%! Beggars purchased young
children from orphanages, disable them to get more money!
15. In America individuals with CIDs were subjected as witches and would be persecuted or
executed.
16. Salem Witch Trials in Salem, Massachusetts- the outbreak of smallpox, the constant
fear of Indian attacks, and the revocation of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Charter by
Charles II (three reasons for anxiety in America)
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17. Jacob Rodrigues Periere and Phillipe Pinel- individuals should be taught and educated
no matter their disability. Periere developed the sign language! DID NOT WORK
DIRECTLY WITH THAT POPULATION
18. Itard and Seguin- worked directly with CIDs population.
19. Phillipe Pinel- psychiatrist who freed the patients of Bicetre- mental asylum! Moral
Treatment!
The mentor of Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, considered the first individual to attempt to
educate an individual with a CID
20. The first half of the 19th century finally brought a positive approach to the treatment of
individuals with CIDs.
21. 1828 and 1844 English Lunacy Act-improve conditions and services of asylums
22. 1818, the New York Institution for the Deaf and Dumb was established
23. The New England Asylum for the Blind was established in 1832.
24. Jacques Marc Gaspard Itard- worked with individuals with hearing impairments-Worked
with Victor-wild boy “feral child”
25. Esquirol- worked with mentally ill patients-He differentiated between “idiots” whose
CIDs were severe, and “imbeciles,”whose CIDs were not as significant.
26. Esquirol shared Pinel’s views that individuals with CIDs could not be educated, whereas
Itard disagreed with Pinel feeling that they could.
27. Guggenbuhl-first one to start an institution for CIDs
Interested in cretinism- caused by tyroid deficiency- physical deformity and CIDs.
Caused by a lack of iodine
encouraged proper health care, physical exercise, and a proper diet, and used
medication and educational techniques such as sensory, memory, and language
training
Abendberg closed
27. 1964-moment towards deinstitutionalization
28. Samuel Gridley Howe- worked with individuals with visual impairments
Found the new England asylum for blind in 1832
Led an experimental study with 10 children who had CIDs
29. Seguin- Student of Esquirol (Itard became his mentor in 1837)
Used a physiological method- extension of info used by Itard and Victor.
It was based on the importance of training the muscular system and nervous system;
sensory training, including vision, hearing, tasting and smelling; teaching general
ideas; developing abstract thinking skills; and moral training.
Formed the Association of Medical Officers of American Institutions for Idiotic and
Feebleminded Persons and Seguin was elected as the first president.
30. Term schools or institutions replaced with asylums after war
31. Eugenics- introduced by Frances Galton science that took into account the factors
which improve quality of a race
32. Tredgold- 90% of CIDs are hereditary
33. Kalikak- good and bad
34. Goddard located 480 descendants of the illegitimate child, of whom 143 had
CIDs.(HEREDITARY)
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35. His other conclusions were that the descendants of the illegitimate child had a high
incidence of criminal behavior, alcoholism, prostitution, and other negative traits.
36. Dr. Harry Haiselden, who not only allowed “defective” newborns to die but also used
drugs to hasten their deaths. His practices resulted in a movie, The Black Stork, that
encouraged the use of euthanasia.
37. Also in 1915, Fernald presented several reasons why society’s views of individuals with
CIDs had changed so drastically.
development and widespread use of intelligence tests made it easier to identify
more individuals with CIDs
research of Goddard and others on the inheritability of CIDs implied that the
cure was to keep individuals with CIDs from having children.
Third, he argued that there was evidence that CIDs were a cause of crime and
delinquency, prostitution, and illegitimacy, among other undesirable traits.
Finally, Fernald noted that the prevalence of CIDs was increasing.
38. Wolfensberger (1975) referred to the increase in institutionalization as “continuity of
momentum,” arguing that there was no real rationale for their growth and that they
resulted in greater dehumanization of individuals with CIDs.
39. Kanner (1964) referred to the time period from 1920–1940 as the “the great lull” in
which the knowledge of CIDs was not really advanced and the institutions became
merely housing units.
40. Organizations such as the American Association on Mental Deficiency (today known as
the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) continued to
provide important information about the definition, classification, and education of
individuals with CIDs
41. Phenylketonuria (PKU)- detected by Folling acid in urine can be prevented and
identified
42. In the 1950s, in particular, there were a significant number of legislative acts that
provided support for individuals with disabilities
43. Universities became more involved in developing education programs that trained
teachers to work with students with CIDs. This was encouraged, in part, to Public Law
85-926 that provided funds for such training.
44. One example was Educating the Retarded Child (Kirk & Johnson, 1951) that was
coauthored by Samuel Kirk, who was later known to coin the phrase “learning
disabilities.”
45. Greater understanding of prenatal risk factors such as the lack of maternal nutrition and
the presence of maternal rubella as well as perinatal risk factors such as anoxia, or the
lack of oxygen to the fetus during the birth process (Stevens, 1954).
46. 1960s- Cuban Missile Crisis to the Vietnam War
47. Kennedy (president) also formed the Division of Handicapped Children and Youth and
Samuel Kirk was appointed as Director.
48. Scandinavia- normalization-individuals with CIDs should be provided the same
opportunities as others.
49. The Mental Retardation Facilities and Mental Health Centers Construction Act was
passed in 1963- development of Mental Retardation Research Centers that provided
support and facilities for cohesive, interdisciplinary programs for research and research
training.
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Document Summary

Chapter 1: terms used idiot, imbecile, moron, feeble-minded, mental defective/deficiency. Mental retardation used in disability education act of 2004. Rosa"s law (obama)= mental retardation intellectual disability: st. nicholas thaumaturgos- bishop of myra- protector and saint of individuals with. Proposed treatements of cids (meningitis and hydrocephalus: reanissance (1300s) and reformation (1500s, paracelsus, a swiss physician- many are those who are ill who are not thought to be mentally sick. Cids were kept in prison with a death rate exceeding 75-80%! Charles ii (three reasons for anxiety in america: jacob rodrigues periere and phillipe pinel- individuals should be taught and educated no matter their disability. Directly with that population: itard and seguin- worked directly with cids population, phillipe pinel- psychiatrist who freed the patients of bicetre- mental asylum! Cids were severe, and imbeciles, whose cids were not as significant: esquirol shared pinel"s views that individuals with cids could not be educated, whereas.

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