PSYC 3850 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Lev Vygotsky, Assistive Technology, Speech Disorder

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Chapter 6
Cognitive and Learning Characteristics
- Developmental delay
oAn individual may exhibit or acquire much of the same knowledge and skills as someone
without CIDs but at a slower rate and/or at a later age
- Developmental difference
oWhen an individual displays behaviours that is atypical of children or adolescents
Cognitive characteristics
- Intellectual functioning must be viewed within the context of several other dimensions
oAdaptive behaviour
oParticipation, interactions, and social roles
oHealth (physical and mental health, and etiological factors)
oContext ( environments and culture)
- Cognitive and other characteristics must be considered to be interactive and codependent on
factors among these various dimensions
- 2 major theories concerning cognitive development
oPiaget
Schemas within a child’s mind organize and interpret the input received through
the senses and experience
Schemas are altered through assimilation (when new skills or knowledge are
integrated into existing knowledge) and accommodation ( when thoughts and
actions are adjusted based on new knowledge)
4 major stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years)
oChild constructs meaning of the world through sensory
experiences and physical actions
oInfants progress from reflexive behaviour and more instinctual
responses toward the beginning of symbolic thinking
Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years)
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oChild progresses in representational use of words and actions
that reflect symbolic thinking
oBegins to understand object permanence and theory of mind
oTend to be egocentric and intuitive in their thinking
Concrete operational stage (7 to 11 years)
o Child reasons logically about events which are concrete
oOperational thoughts
Child realizes actions and representations can be
reversible
oAbstract thinking can still be problematic
oAble to classify objects and understand concrete relationships
Formal operational stage (11-15 years)
oAble to think more abstractly, idealistically, and logically and
beyond concrete events
oVygotsky
Placed considerable emphasis on social and cultural processes in the
development of individual’s mental functioning
Mediation, through language and discourse, is the means by which cognitive
functions are modified and altered
Should occur within the child’s zone of proximal development
oThe range of tasks that are too difficult for children to master
alone but that can be learned with guidance and assistance
from adults or more skilled children
Involves scaffolding
oThe processes of altering the level of guidance and assistance
given as a child becomes increasingly effective and efficient at
various skills and mental functions
- Cognitive delays
oDelay position
If you compare the performance of individuals with CIDs to those of individuals
with a similar mental age, you should obtain a similar result between the two
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