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SOAN 2112 Classical Theory Reading Zietlan: Engels

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Sociology and Anthropology
SOAN 2112
Linda Hunter

Frederick Engels on the Origin of PatriarchyThe social organization in wihc people live in any given historical epoch is determined by the level reached in the productivity of labour and by the form of its family and kinship relationsgives due considering to both the character of production and reproduction of human lifeThere is a definite relationship between the socioeconomic structure fo a society and the form and content of the family spcificlaly the relation of the sexesBefore the 1860s there was no such thing as a history of the familyLewis Henry Morgan Humanity has developed in accordance iwth the progress made in the methods of producing the neceassaries of life Central features of each stage of human progress o HunterGatherer or SavageLowest stage of savagery human beings as treedwellers subsisting on vegan diets and developed articulate speech No direct evidence to prove this existenceMiddle stage of savagery utilization of fish for food and the use of fire Humans become independent of particular localities spread far and wide Upper stage of savagery invention of the bow and arrow implying longaccumulated experience and sharpened intelligence Merest beginnings of settlement in vollages Dugout canoes beams and planks in construction of houseso Agricultural RevolutionIntroduction of pottery cites the transition to earliest stage ofbarbarism Middle stage of barbarism domestication and breeding of animals and cultivation of plantsUpper stage of barbarism smelting of iron ore and oases into civiliaion with the invention of alphabetic writing use of records Use of iron plowshares draw by cattle to cultivate large fields remarkable increases in productivity of labour and surplusesStages of the family o Consanguine Family Earliest stage of this social institution Only parents and children are proscribed marriage partners brothers and sisters and male and female cousins are all potential husbands and wives for each other No evidenceo Punaluan Family Excluded parents and children brothers and sisters from sexual intercourse Conjectural stage Husbands no longer called themselves brothers called themselves punaluan companions Wives called each other punaluanimplied group marriage Sexual intercourse within a moiety was prohibited Man had a cheif wife for whom he was the chief husbando Pairing Family Too weak and unstable to form its own household remained embedded in the communal household Communistic housekeeping means the supremacy of women in the house held in high respect How did the
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