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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Sociology Notes

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SOC 1100
Linda Gerber

Chapter 14 Sociology RaceEthnicityThe Social Meaning of RaceEthnicityRace a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider importantVariety of physical traits also product of migration physical traits once common to single place surly hairlight skin etc are now found in many lands Eg middleeast Greater physical uniformity characterized more isolated people such as the Indiandwelling Japanese Race is socially constructed concept Different categories of people see physical traits differently Some people define themselvesand are defined by others differently depending on the setting Entire societies define physical traits differentlyRacialEthnic Categoriesth Scientists invented concept of race in 19 century to organize worlds physical diversity Identified 3 Racial TypesCaucasoid light skinfine hair Negroid Darker skin and coarse hair Mongoloid people with yellow or brown skindistinctive folds on the eyelidsA Trend Towards MixtureToday more people are willing to define themselves as multiracial Result due to intermarriageEthnicity is a shared cultural heritage People define themselves and others as members of an ethnic category based on common ancestry language or religion that gives them distinctive social identity Objective criteria are traits such as ancestry cultural practices dress religion and language Subjective criteria involves internalization of a distinctive social identity whereby people identify themselves or are perceived by others belonging to a different group Is socially constructed becoming only important when society defines it that way People can change there ethnicities by adopting a different way of lifeMinorities is any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural differences that a society sets apart and subordinates Have 2 major characteristics 1 They share distinctive identity2 Subordinations such as lower income occupation prestige and opportunitiesPrejudiceStereotypesPrejudice is a rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of peopleMay target certain social class sex sexual orientation age physical disability religion political affiliation etc Prejudgments tat might be positive or negative Often takes form of stereotype a simplified description applied to every person in some category 1986 Canadian Gov passed the Employment Equity Act to ensure a more inclusive environment by encouraging the employment and promotion of targeted minoritiesRacism refers to the belief that one racial category is innately superior or inferior to anotherWhites may think racism as an irrational irregularity in an otherwise caring society Racial conflict has intensified in Britain and western European societies as Whites confront millions of immigrants from former colonies and refugees from strifetorn Eastern Europe Several terrorist attacks in Europe worsen conflictTheories of PrejudiceScapegoat Theory holds that prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged A scapegoat is a person or category of people typically with little power whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles Bc they have little power they are usually safe targetsminorities often are used as scapegoatsAuthoritarian Personality Theory Adornocolleagues considered extreme prejudice to be a personality
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