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Chapter 5

SOC 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Generation Gap, Representational State Transfer, Middle Ages

Course Code
SOC 1100
Linda Gerber

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Chapter 5
Page 1
Social Experience: The Key to our Humanity
(def) socialization the lifelong social experience by which people develop
their human potential and learn culture
- humans need social experience to learn their culture and survive
(def) personality a person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking and
- Socialization is the foundation of personality
- Without social experience personality hardly develops at all
The role of NATURE:
- Misunderstood Charles Darwin evolution theory
led people to believe that human behavior was instinctive
i.e born as criminals, born competitive etc…
thought human diversity was biology NOT culture
some thought that those in less technological societies were less
evolved less human
The role of NUTURE:
- John Watson
developed theory of ‘behaviorism’
Behavior is not instinctive it is learned
Human behavior is not rooted in nature but in nurture
- Developing your potential depends on how you are raised
- Brain does not fully develop if children are not stimulated to use it early
in life
- Nurture matter more in shaping human behavior
- Nurture is our nature
Social Isolation
- Rhesus Monkey experiments:
Performed by Harry and Margaret Harlow
Complete isolation with adequate nutrition for 6 mths seriously
disturbed the monkeys
When returned to their group they were passive, anxious,
Artificial mother with wire mesh
Monkeys survived but unable to interact with others when
placed in a group
Terry Cloth mother
Monkeys would cling to mother
Showed less developmental damage than earlier groups
Concluded monkeys benefited from closeness
Monkeys could recover from 3 months of isolation
6 months of isolation caused irreversible emotional and
behavioral damage
- Studies of Isolated Children

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Chapter 5
Page 2
Anna (1938)
5 years of social isolation
slowly started to show interest in people
started to use words at the age of 10
possibly ‘retarded’ as her mother was as well
died at age 10 due to a blood disorder
Isabelle (around 1938)
6 years of isolation
same lack of responsiveness
entered into intensive learning program
within a week trying to speak
witn 1.5 years knew 2000 words
at 14 she started to attend 6th grade classes
Genie (1970)
Tied to a potty in a dark garage from age 2-13
Weighed only 59 lbs, had mental development of 1 yr old
Language ability remains that of a young child
Genie now lives in a home for developmentally disabled
Understanding Socialization
Six Researchers that have contributed to understanding human development:
1. Sigmund Freud Elements of Personality
Basic Human Needs:
- Humans have two basic needs:
1. “Life Instinct” sexual drive
2. “Death Instinct” aggressive drive
- These two forces operate at the unconscious level and create inner
Model of Personality:
- Personality consists of 3 parts:
human beings basic drive
demand immediate satisfaction
i.e a baby is born and demands attn for food, touching…
id originates in biology
A persons conscious effort to balance innate pleasure-
seeking drives with demands of society
Ego develops as we become aware of ourselves

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Chapter 5
Page 3
We realize we can’t have everything we want
Cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
Operates as our conscience
Tells us why we can’t have everything we want
Begins to form as a child becomes aware of parental
demands and cultural norms
- Id and superego remain in conflict
A well adjusted person can manage these two opposing forces
If conflicts are resolved in childhood they may surface as
personality disorders later on
- Culture (in the form of superego) represses selfish demands
Competition of self and society result in “sublimation” which
redirects selfish drives into socially acceptable behavior
i.e drive for sex = marriage, drive for aggression = sports
Freud’s important points:
- We internalize social norms
- Childhood experiences have lasting impacts on our personalities
2. Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
(def) Cognition how people think and understand
Four stages of cognitive development:
- 1. The Sensorimotor Stage
the level of human development at which individuals
experience the world only through their senses
0-2 years of life
- 2. Pre-operational stage
the level of development at which individuals first use
language and other symbols
children think about the world mentally and use imagination
age 2-6 yrs
can attach meaning only to specific experiences & objects
i.e can say a toy is their favorite but can’t explain what ‘kinds’
of toys they like
- 3. The concrete operational stage
level of development at which individuals first see causal
connections in their surroundings
age 7-11 yrs
children focus on how and why things happen
children attach more than one symbol to a particular even or
i.e “Today is Wednesday”, yes and it’s my birthday too
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