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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Socialization.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 1100
Professor
Linda Gerber

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Chapter 5 Socialization Social Experience: The Key to our Humanity (def) socialization the lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture - humans need social experience to learn their culture and survive (def) personality a persons fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking and feeling. - Socialization is the foundation of personality - Without social experience personality hardly develops at all The role of NATURE: - Misunderstood Charles Darwin evolution theory led people to believe that human behavior was instinctive i.e born as criminals, born competitive etc thought human diversity was biology NOT culture some thought that those in less technological societies were less evolved less human The role of NUTURE: - John Watson developed theory of behaviorism Behavior is not instinctive it is learned Human behavior is not rooted in nature but in nurture - Developing your potential depends on how you are raised - Brain does not fully develop if children are not stimulated to use it early in life - Nurture matter more in shaping human behavior - Nurture is our nature - Social Isolation - Rhesus Monkey experiments: Performed by Harry and Margaret Harlow Complete isolation with adequate nutrition for 6 mths seriously disturbed the monkeys When returned to their group they were passive, anxious, fearful Artificial mother with wire mesh Monkeys survived but unable to interact with others when placed in a group Terry Cloth mother Monkeys would cling to mother Showed less developmental damage than earlier groups Concluded monkeys benefited from closeness Monkeys could recover from 3 months of isolation 6 months of isolation caused irreversible emotional and behavioral damage - Studies of Isolated Children Page 1 Chapter 5 Anna (1938) 5 years of social isolation slowly started to show interest in people started to use words at the age of 10 possibly retarded as her mother was as well died at age 10 due to a blood disorder Isabelle (around 1938) 6 years of isolation same lack of responsiveness entered into intensive learning program within a week trying to speak witn 1.5 years knew 2000 words at 14 she started to attend 6 grade classes Genie (1970) Tied to a potty in a dark garage from age 2-13 Weighed only 59 lbs, had mental development of 1 yr old Language ability remains that of a young child Genie now lives in a home for developmentally disabled adults Understanding Socialization Six Researchers that have contributed to understanding human development: 1. Sigmund Freud Elements of Personality Basic Human Needs: - Humans have two basic needs: 1. Life Instinct sexual drive 2. Death Instinct aggressive drive - These two forces operate at the unconscious level and create inner tensions - Model of Personality: - Personality consists of 3 parts: Id human beings basic drive unconscious demand immediate satisfaction i.e a baby is born and demands attn for food, touching id originates in biology Ego A persons conscious effort to balance innate pleasure- seeking drives with demands of society Ego develops as we become aware of ourselves Page 2Chapter 5 We realize we cant have everything we want Superego Cultural values and norms internalized by an individual Operates as our conscience Tells us why we cant have everything we want Begins to form as a child becomes aware of parental demands and cultural norms - Id and superego remain in conflict A well adjusted person can manage these two opposing forces If conflicts are resolved in childhood they may surface as personality disorders later on - Culture (in the form of superego) represses selfish demands Competition of self and society result in sublimation which redirects selfish drives into socially acceptable behavior i.e drive for sex = marriage, drive for aggression = sports Freuds important points: - We internalize social norms - Childhood experiences have lasting impacts on our personalities 2. Jean Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development (def) Cognition how people think and underst
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