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Chapter 4

SOC 1500 Chapter 4: CHAPTER 4

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University of Guelph
SOC 1500
Stephanie Howells

rd th November 3 and 4 Reading Chapter 4 Textbook A Brief History of Policing: The emergence of Modern Policing  First time police force (1829) was created in London by Sir Robert Peel in response to increasing fear of crime and disorder associated with the Industrial Revolution – before this policing was a community responsibility  Peel legitimized the police force by arguing that police would serve the interests of all people, prevent crime and that police would be recruited from the working class o He introduced the concept of community police stations o In contrast to the local watch men who preceded them, the police were to engage in crime prevention Principles of Sir Robert Peel  Basic mission for police is to prevent crime  Ability for police to perform their duties depends on public approval  Police must have the cooperation of public to in voluntary observance of law  Degree of public cooperation with police dimishes to the necessity of physical force  Police maintains public favour by demonstrating impartial service, not catering to the public  Police should only use physical force to maintain order  Police should have a relationship with public that is based on the fact that the police are the public and the public are the police  Police should direct their actions toward their functions and not appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary  The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder The Evolution of Policing in Canada  Before Canada existed as a country, laws were enforced by an informal community standard  There were close ties to communities  First Police were in Quebec city in the mid 16000s and in Upper Canada in the early 1800s  Early municipal police has 3 part mandate: o To police conflicts between ethnic groups and between labourers and employers o To maintain moral standards by enforcing laws against drunkenness, prostitution and gambling o Apprehend criminals  Jurisdictions that became provinces after confederation had their own police forces; they were a response from gold strikes  Earliest police force was in British Columbia (RCMP)  The police Forces in Alberta\Saskatchewan and Manitoba suffered from poor leadership  RCMP received provincial responsibilities in all province except Ontario, Quebec and newfoundland and Labrador (to this day they are the only areas with provincial police force)  The North West Mounted police (RCMP) was founded in 1873 to maintain law and order and to ensure the settlement of the North West Territories  In early years they had difficulty by settlers and legislators  The emergence of the RCMP as a national force involved in policing provinces and municipalities was, in fact, more an accident of history than part of a master plan  Today, 70,000 police officers in Canada, or 199 police officers per 100,000 people  It is said this # is lower then other countries  The number of police offenders has gradually increased, along with female officers  Policing is the largest component in justice system and gets biggest funding Contemporary Canadian Policing  Being on the front line, police have more contact with the general public than other criminal justice personnel  Police are highly visible in contrast with other criminal justice personnel  Courts receive less scrutiny then police force Levels of Policing  Policing is careered out at several levels: Federal, provincial and territorial, municipal, and First Nations  Other police services may include the Canadian Pacific Police Service) which fulfills policing roles for its organizations) and in major urban sectors such as Toronto and Montreal and Vancouver, transit police forces provide security and protection Federal Police: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police  Royal Canadian Mounted Police is organized into 15 levels, plus the RCMP federal headquarters is in Ottawa and each division is headed by a commanding officer  The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act- provides the framework for the forces operation (federal legislation).  RCMP enforces most federal statues and provisions of various legislative acts  What distinguishes the RCMP from other Canadian Police Services o They train all recruits in Regina, Saskatchewan and then deploy them across the country o RCMP is involved in a broad range of policing activities, including federal policing, contract policing at Provincial, Territorial and Municipal levels and international peace keeping  The RCMP is a federal police force, yet 60% of its personnel are involved in contract policing  Contract Policing – An arrangement where by the RCMP are provincial or territorial police forces provide provincial and municipal policing services  They serve as provincial, territorial, and municipal police officers under agreements between the RCMP and provinces or territories  There are concerns about fiscal accountability for the RCMP who police municipalities- there are no local board that have to over see their work Provincial Police  3 provincial police in Canada: The Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), The Surete du Quebec, and the Royal Newfoundland Constabulary  Provincal police forces are responsible for policing rural areas and the areas outside municipalities and cities  They enforce provincial laws under the criminal code  When the RCMP acts as a provincial police force, it has full jurisdiction under the code Regional Police Services  Ex- Peel Police, Halton Regional Police- provide policing services to more than 50 % of Ontarians  Proponents od regional policing contend that it is more effective at protecting a full range of policing services to communities and is less expensive than having a number of independent municipal departments  Critics; too centralized and does not offer the opportunity for effective community policing  The trend toward regionalization will continue to be driven by fiscal considerations and the growing need for police services to maintain interoperability Municipal Police  Municipal police have jurisdiction within a city boundaries  Enforce criminal code, provincial or territorial statues and municipal by laws, as well as certain federal statues such  Most Police work is performed by services operating at this level  A municipality can provide police services in one of three ways: o By creating its own independent police services o By joining with another municipalities existing independent police force o Contracting with a police force  Municipal police officers constitute the largest body of police personnel in the country  Municipalities with their own policing services generally assume the costs of those services, which are sometimes underwired by the provincial government First Nation Police  Aboriginal people are becoming increasingly involved within the creation and control of justice programs  It is in the area of policing that they have assumed the greatest control over the delivery justice series  Within the framework of the federal First Nations Policing Policy, the federal government, the provincial and territorial governments, and First Nations communities can negotiate agreements for police services that best meet the needs of the First Nation Communities  Funding for Aboriginal Police forces are split between the province or territory and the federal government  Large Aboriginal police forces- Six Nations Police Force, the Amerindian Police in Quebec and the Dakota Ojibwa Police Forces in Manitoba  Aboriginal officers generally have the power to enforce on reserve lands the Criminal Code, federal and provinal statues and land by laws  Activities of the first nations police forces are overseen by reserve-based police commissions or by local band councils. Aboriginal police forces often work closely with the OPP, the SQ and the RCMP Police Peacekeeping  RCMPY are involved in peacekeeping activities such as assignments in Sierra Lenone, Afghanistan and Sudan – technical advisors and instruct local police forces  Considerable debate on the effectiveness of this- some argue that the results are minimal and it is just to make our government look good  The deployment of police office overseas is one example where police officers may be being used for political purposes Private Security Services  Recent years has been growth in private sectors which is now providing services previously performed by municipal police services  2 main types of private security: security and firms that sell their services of businesses, neighbourhoods etc. and companies that empot their own in house security officers  Private securities officers outnumber police officers by four to one in Canada and are engaged in a wide range of activities, including crowd control, protecting businesses and property etc.  The expansion of the activities of private security firms into areas traditionally serviced by the police has resulted in uncertainty about the powers and authority of private security officers  Generally, private security officers have more legal authority than ordinary citizens to enforce the law or protect property  The rapid growth of private security has led concerns with the transformation of private security officers into parabolic through the extension of their activities beyond loss preventions and the protection of property to encompass order and maintenance Defining Police work Policing- the activities of any individual or organization acting legally on behalf of public pr private organization or persons to maintain security or social order -This definition is an acknowledgment that the public police no longer have a monopoly on policing. An increasing role in safety and security in the community is being played by private security services and Para police officers -David Bayley and Cliffor Shearign have labelled this phenomenon the pluralisation of policing -Pluralisation of policing- The sharing of responsibility for safety and security in the community between public and private police Police Work in a Democratic society  The Law Reform Commission of Canada has identified 4 key values from the framework within which to understand police work in Canadian Society o Justice- the requirement that the police maintain peace and security in the communist whole ensuring that individuals are treated fairly and human rights are respected o Equality- all citizens are entitled to policing services that contribute to their feelings of safety and security o Accountability- the actions of police services and police officers are subject to review o Efficiency- policing services must be cost effective Governance of police  There must be governmental and judicial oversight of police activates  A key issu
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