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Crime and Criminal Justice - chpt 2 from text book

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SOC 1500
Andrew Hathaway

Crime and Criminal JusticeChapter 2 Early Legal Codes The earliest surviving legal codes were developed 2000 BC in Sumer present day Iraq Adopted by Hummurabiking of Babylon Developed into Code of Hammurabipunishment was physical retaliationan eye for an eye direct translationlex talionsPunishment depended on social class Judgeslocal officialswere expected to apprehend criminalsif they failed they personally had to replace or fix the wrongdoings that victim had suffered from Mosaic code of the Israelites1200 BCby tradition the covenant between God and the tribes of Isreal in which they agreed to obey his law as presented to them by Moses in return for Gods special love and protectionBasis of our present day legal system Prohibitions against murder theft perjuryadultery etc Roman Law 451 BC Special commission of 10 menPURPOSE equalize the law between classes Idea that written law must be created so that those within status are not at an advantage Early crime punishment and law Early legal codes were lost during the middle agesMonetary payments were the normal punishment during this time This time was considered to be very Chaoticlaw was controlled by the lord of great manors who ruled according to local custom and tradition Wergild money paid to victim for criminal offense under medieval law Origins of Common LawDeveloped in Englandstandardize law and justice system Originallymonetary payments were made to victim and familyAND if not paid the victim would seek revenge For treasonous acts the punishment was death The Norman Conquest Church handled matters of sin while courts handled secular violations William the Conqueror replaced local tribunals local court admin with royal administrationthis way he could assure military supremacy over his entire land This royal administration travelled in circuits throughout the land These judges would then decide what to do in each caseusing local custom and rules of conduct as their guides treat each case differently according to circumstances This system became known asstate decisis the principle that the courts are bound to follow the law established in previously decided cases unless the law was over ruled by higher authority Current English system came to be during the time of king Henry II11541189
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