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SOC 3750 (50)
Chapter 14

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SOC 3750
Bill O' Grady

Chapter 14 Young Offenders Chapter 14: Quebec's experience in keeping youth out of jail The Quebec intervention model for young offenders: The right measure at the right time o The dynamic relationship between research and intervention has also played a major role in defining a differential intervention - identification of the type of delinquency associated with certain behaviours - approach that has become more explicit and is now recognized as the basis of the intervention model used in Quebec. Evolution of Quebec’s legislative framework o To protect the nearly 80 000 poor England youths who were sent with no money or family Quebec established two laws · The industrial school act: which ensured housing and education for children under 14 years old who had been abandoned or not taken care of · The reform school act: aimed to rehabilitate offenders under 16 years old th o By the 20 century in Quebec religious institutions care for abandoned children free of charge. · The intention was to morally and physically save these children. o In 1951 Quebec passed the school act of youth protection which abolished reform and industrial schools · This act instituted youth protection schools and the court of social welfare. Judges were expected to act with reasonable and due care. · The procedures applied by the judge could be seen as a implementation of the state as the parents partial. o In 19977 Quebec adopted the youth protect act · This act was a major step that influenced the intervening of young offenders · In addition to dealing with children in need of protection, the law also dealt with young person's charged with an offence · Provisions are included that define voluntary measure that can be offered to young offenders as alternative to judicial proceedings. · These provisions allow the youth protection director to either propose a voluntary measure, refer the matter to court, or close the case · The process was eventually invalidated by the SCC but it influenced the recourse for young offenders outside of judicial procedures. o The Quebec national assembly held the Charbonneau special parliamentary commission addressing youth protection · The commission proposed the adoption of an alternative measures program that balanced social and judicial obligations · The first step consists of an examination of the evidence by the solicitor followed by a decision from the youth protection director as to which regime is applicable, by either proposing alternative measures or recommending charges · The commission also recommended that youth protection direction be made the provincial director under the YOA, giving him responsibility over rehabilitation services provided to young offenders. o In 1984 Quebec was one of the first provinces to take advantage of the Alternative measure program provision of the YOA o Since 1984 the number of juveniles who have benefited from alternative measures has continued to grow o In 2009 5604 teens were given extrajudicial sanctions compared to 3723 who received sentences. o Since 2000, nearly 800 young offenders a year have been supervised by alternative justice agencies in alternative measure programs o The opening of the Philippe-Pinel Institute enabled the creation of specialized assessment and treatment programs for young offenders who presented with severe mental disorders o Four major events that had a major impact on improving rehabilitation services for youths in Quebec were: · Initiatives that tested alternative measures for young offenders · The major reorganization of all social services · The creation of social-service centers · The youth protection act of Quebec § Within the act youth protection directors were appointed and in the 1980s they were mandated under the YOA. The evolution of interventions Transformation of open-custody interventions  in the 1950s, people really began to rebel against custody - they started taking young offenders out of prison and placing them in rehabilitation plays - like boscoville o Boscoville was a program introduced in Quebec which was based on a social welfare and psycho- educative model and that introduced elements in its program designed to teach delinquent youth the necessary skills, values, and attitudes that would allow them to develop a sense of responsibility  boscoville had small numbers of trained staff members with small numbers of people - larger institutions had 200-300 young offenders with a small number of untrained church goers  the intention was to re-educate · Psycho-educative model: Based on several assumptions in regard to young offenders · #1 love was not sufficient for working with youth. This meant that workers must have certain relative, competent skills. Educators working with young offenders had to develop specific skills in order to intervene efficiently. Such skills were (capacity to plan and direct rehabilitative activities, knowledge of normal and abnormal adolescent development, the capacity to perform educational clinical evaluations, and to conduct educational monitoring interviews) · #2 re-education of young offenders must be integrated into every activity throughout the day and shared with the psycho-educator so that these youths would have had a chance to change and take responsibility for their development  youth that left boscoville were less likely to commit crimes again in the next year  the PHilippe-Pinel Institute - studied offenders with bad mental disorders - also provided specialized assessment services- showed how important the differential intervention concept is when tying to rehabilitate young offenders o Following the experiment at bosocville it was clear that one method of rehabilitation was not sufficient for all youth offenders - the program was more effective with young offenders with neurotic disorders - than highly criminalized teens presenting psychopathic disorders o In the Jasmine II report, a consensus of all actors of the judicial and social-service systems stated that it is possible to implement effective interventions that respect youth rights and offer the right measure for the right time. - the proper intervention for certain offenders o Assessments are a fundamental in determining what type of measure is best appropriate for young offenders. It also became apparent that specialized programs were needed for low-risk offenders but also specialized programs for high risk offenders  inspired by Boscoville, many tried using the Interpersonal Maturity Levels theory for young offenders as a model of differential intervention - was designed to evaluate the level of maturity of the offender to better assign an intervention strategy The Transformation of Secure-Custody Intervention  1975 - Quebec had a young offenders center that was much like a prison - called Le Centre Berthelet - violent riot broke out - prompted important reorganization of the center - which in turn influenced the reorganization of other centers - which lead to new knowledge about the changes required to support rehabilitation  Changed the name to Cite des Prairies - constructed a rehabilitation place for youth who required closed custody  the main guidelines were as follows - 1 - Take the necessary means to find competent and well trained employees - finding rehabilitative trained staff  2 - To implement programs with activities intent on socializing the clientele and inspired by intervention methods proven to be effective - included academic, sport, and art activities that emphasized rehabilitation over physical control and confinement - included a thorough psych- social assessment - and an individualized intervention plan  3 - to establish an adequate equilibrium between dynamic and static security - dynamic security is achieved in a secure custody location by the relational dimension - the bonds made with the educators and instructors - have to have balance between physical and emotional security that creates a secure environment for both The evolution of community intervention  the focus on when the offender enters back into the community and the supervision placed on them  Quebec was first to do major different intensive programs  the research showed that 76% percent of youth did not recidivate one year after completing the program  Led to the implementation in 2009 of a new pilot program of intensive differential follow up - SID - or suivi intensif differencie - which was to undergo eval in 2011  these projects have arguably influenced federal policy including the YOA The Evolution of Criminological Research  crim theory helped indentify youth characteristics  research by Le Blanc have helped distinguish between common delinquency
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