SOC 3750 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: New York City Police Commissioner, Ontario Provincial Police, Police Services Act Of Ontario

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Chapter # 11: Community Policing
Community Policing in History:
Community policing was started in Britain with the introduction of Robert
Peel’s force in 1829
In America, it was started as early as 1914 the then New York City Police
Commissioner Arthur Wood
However others oppose that there has always been community policing
oEspecially in rural areas
It is also possible to combine both of these perspectives and to view
community policing as re - emergence of the original style of policing
Phases of Policing:
There are three distinct phases of policing in the United States:
1. The political phase: which characterized early development from 1840 –
2. The reform phase: which dominated policy from the 1920s until quite
recently, and incorporated notions of advanced organizational and
technical thinking and professionalism
3. The transition phase: for the reform to the community strategy of the
While these phases may be regarded as simplistic, o5ering only limited
applicability to other nations
Oppal (1994) describes the characteristics of community policing as
oIncident oriented
oResponse oriented
oFocused on limited analysis
oFocused on narrow response
oFocused on the mean rather the end
Community Policing in the US:
The development of community policing Canada may be seen, in part, as a
reaction to what has occurred in the Unites States
However, any analysis along these lines must be undertaken with caution
oBecause Canadian policing did not have to deal with the same
concerns as American Policing had to
Community policing emerged in the US in response to a number of factors
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oi.e., expensive and expansive police services, declining
neighbourhood safety in urban areas, class and race based con;icts
and academic critique of police e<ciency
There was clearly a crisis in policing in US in the 1960s, the police were
seen as distant from the population they served
oThis issue was compounded by the increase of technology
The questionable e5ectiveness of the professional model, driven by
technological advances, and the resulting detrimental in;uence on police
community relations can be summarized
oLook in IPC text on page 229 for details
Community Policing in Canada:
Leighton (1994) argued: in adopting community policing, police
organizations in Canada are simply returning to their nineteenth – century
origins after few years of using the professional policing model
Other see the adoption of community policing policies and practices to be
in;uenced by events in the US and lesser extent, in Britain
The development of community policing may be viewed as a response to
other social and economic concerns
Community policing sits well with programmatic polices
oConcerns expressed over the e<ciency and e5ectiveness of
policing. community policing and by involving the community
A number of developments in Canada were regarded as distancing the
police from the community
Canadian policing has ?rmly embraced the community policing paradigm
The inception of the community policing philosophy in Canada can be
traced back serval years to a publication sponsored by the Solicitor
o‘community based policing: a review of the critical issues’, which
argued there was a strong mandate for reassessing current police
beliefs and practices
oThis document went on to stress that community policing o5ers a
viable and creative management response to what was seen as a
restrictive police environment
Community Policing and the RCMP:
As early as 1918, the RCMP started to discuss the possibility of community
During the recent past the RCMP has developed a number of di5erent
policy documents that include reference to community policing
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