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Chapter 5

ANTH 1210 Chapter 5: Topic 55

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ANTH 1210
Haskel J.Greenfield

c82 34 MYA most famous = Lucy (3.18 MYA, 40 complete, 1921 years old) cranial features o average cranial capacity (450 ml) o similar sized chimp would be 500 ml prognathism forward project of face, pronounced mild sagittal crest teeth think enamel, broad molars, consumed tough vegetation (roots, grasses), canines (mild, but apelike) AL 129 Johansons Knee Hadar, Ethiopia in 1973 o 3.4 MYA portions of both legs including a complete right knee joint almost a miniature of a human knee, belongs to an adults (growth plate fused into 1 bone) Postcranial features Curved fingers (suggests arboreal) Cranial and postcranial indicate bipedalism Foramenmagnum (under cranium) Shape of pelvis (broad, short) Long and thin for a quadruped Angle of pelvis, femur and tibia Upper arm to body length ration o Not as in modern humans o Lower limbs are relatively shorter, arms are longer First family ground living, excellent climber (all ages and sexes, flash flood case) Bipedalism Laetoli o 1976 discovered o Mary Leakey, Tanzania o Dated 3.7 MYA o Foot prints in volcanic ash o Many species of animals
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